Joint research and development in each country
Area of ​​joint research and development in each country
Environment / Energy Life Science / Clinical Medical Systems / Information Science and Technology Nanotechnology / Materials: Research and Development Fields (Life Sciences, Information and Communication, Environment, Nanotechnology / Materials) in Advanced / Important Science and Technology Fields such as Disaster Prevention, Space, Ocean, and Nuclear Energy And promotion 4 fields (energy, manufacturing technology, social infrastructure, frontier) In addition, the importance of human resource development was reiterated, the importance of gender equality was emphasized, and the recruitment target of female researchers
List of joint R & D partners in each country
Japan
RIKEN, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ocean Research and Development Organization, former National Institute of Testing and Materials (NIMS), National Institute of Radiological Sciences ( Current quantum department
(Part of the Academic Technology Research and Development Organization), Disaster Prevention Science and Technology Research Institute, Japan Science Promotion Association (JSPS, Science and Technology Promotion Organization (JST), Science and Technology Policy Research Institute (NISTEP), New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Japan Medical Research and Development Organization (AMED) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at the United Nations National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Industrial Research Institute (RIETI), Materials and Materials Research Organization, RIKEN, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology,
R & D strategies of major countries (2020)
CRDS-FY2019-FR-02 National Research and Development, Japan Science and Technology Agency Research and Development Strategy Center
Joint R & D University
Tohoku University, University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagoya University, Osaka University, Hitotsubashi University
Joint R & D project
"Recovery from the earthquake and realization of regeneration", "Promotion of green innovation" targeting the environment and energy, "Promotion of life innovation" targeting medical care, long-term care and health, renewable energy, hydrogen, etc.). Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research The realization of a "super smart society" (Society 5.0) was touted, and the "11 systems" that were to be promoted in advance toward its realization include "promotion of a comprehensive community care system" and "smart food." "Chain system" and "smart production system" are included. Among the issues that should be strategically resolved, there are related matters such as stable food security, formation of a healthy and long-lived society by realizing the world's most advanced medical technology, and improvement of competitiveness in manufacturing and manufacturing.
Multiple are included. Regarding the above-mentioned research and development related to "formation of a healthy and long-lived society by realizing the world's most advanced medical technology", based on the health and medical strategy and medical field research and development promotion plan under the Health and Medical Strategy Promotion Headquarters, the following It is said that it will promote the nine main efforts of the above. In addition, we will promote international contributions in fields such as infectious disease control. Based on the life science / clinical medicine field research and development promotion plan, the environment for building and utilizing medical ICT infrastructure such as regenerative medicine and cancer. It is supposed to be maintained. Large-scale cohort research / health research, computerization / standardization / database of medical information, research and development for practical use of regenerative medicine including stable culture / preservation technology of iPS cells, brain-machine interface Progress has been made in multiple areas, such as (BMI) research and development, speeding up and streamlining approval examinations for pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and strengthening the system. Following up on the basic plan, "successful creation of human iPS cells", "identification of causative genes for various organ cancers and development of therapeutic methods", "progress of new rice production plans based on the results of rice genome analysis, etc."
All-Japan drug creation
All-Japan medical device development
Innovative medical technology creation base project
Realization of regenerative medicine Highway concept
Genome medical realization project for overcoming diseases
Japan Cancer Research Project
Brain and Mental Health Powerhouse Realization Project
Emerging and re-emerging infectious disease control project
R & D bird's-eye view report
To foster medical / long-term care / health-related industries into growth-leading industries ”,“ To promote research and development related to innovative pharmaceuticals and medical / long-term care technologies originating in Japan ”
"Development of innovative preventive methods", "Development of new early diagnosis methods", "Realization of safe and effective treatments", "Improvement of quality of life (QOL) of the elderly, disabled and patients"
Biomass energy and bio-refa as part of "Green Innovation"
Research and development related to ineries, etc. are being actively undertaken.
Science and technology activities
Science, Technology and Innovation Conference
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology is promoting research and development in advanced and important science and technology fields such as life science, materials / nanotechnology, disaster prevention, space, ocean, and nuclear power, and enhancing and strengthening creative and basic research. Technology / Academic Council
Science Council of Japan Established Japan, deliberates important issues related to science in the three subcommittees of the humanities / social sciences, life sciences, science / engineering, field-specific committees, and issue-specific committees, and compiles them as policy proposals to the government.
Is as follows.
(1) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)
(2) Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
(3) National Research and Development Corporation New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)
(4) Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)
Implementing the "World's Top Level Research Center Program (WPI)" project
1) Large-scale radiation facility (SPring-8), 2) X-ray free electron laser facility (SACLA), 3) Supercomputer "K computer", 4) High-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) Designated and supported by the state.
China
Research base / infrastructure development
The "National Medium- to Long-Term Science and Technology Development Plan Outline (2006-2020)" describes the development of research infrastructure as follows 297. "First, we will promote the construction of large-scale scientific instruments and facilities and their sharing. Second, we will promote the sharing of data and literature on data and information platforms, and provide services to society as a whole. In addition, as a platform for resources, we will establish a system for protecting and utilizing resources in natural science and technology such as genetic resources and specimens. Fourth, we will formulate domestic measurement standards and technical standards. "
The National Development and Reform Commission works with related departments such as the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Education, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the National Development and Reform Commission, the National Defense Science and Technology Bureau, and the General Equipment Department of the People's Liberation Army. , "National Development and Reform Commission for Science and Technology Infrastructure (2012-2030)" was formulated. This is China's first document to systematically promote the medium- to long-term construction and development of national critical science and technology infrastructure. Based on the national science and technology strategy, seven priority fields of energy, life science, earth system / environment, materials, elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, space / astronomical, and engineering technology are designated, and research infrastructure in each field is developed. It is supposed to be.
As for the movement regarding intellectual property rights, in September 2019, we established the "Technology and Innovation Support Center (TISC)" and cooperated with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and other countries around the world to acquire intellectual property rights. It has announced a policy of strengthening its international efforts to protect 298.
The main research bases and research bases are introduced below. (1) State Key Laboratories In China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education and the Chinese Academy of Sciences will play a central role in allocating the budget in 1984.
The State Key Laboratories program to designate laboratories has started. Initially, these State Key Laboratories were set up at universities and national research institutes, and stable support of 8 to 10 million yuan (about 120 to 160 million yen) was obtained annually. In October 2015, 75 state key laboratories set up in companies were certified, and at that time, a total of 265 laboratories were designated. In addition, in the "Opinion on Strengthening the Construction and Development of the State Key Laboratories" released by the Ministry of Science and Technology in June 2018, "By 2020, there will be 300 national key laboratories belonging to universities and national research institutes, corporate type. It is stated that the number of national priority laboratories will be increased to 270, the number of provincial joint national priority laboratories will be increased to 70, and the total number will be increased to about 700. ”299. From the 1990s, the State Key Laboratories was set up as a "laboratory" above the State Key Laboratories, and large-scale facilities and equipment such as synchrotrons were constructed. By 2003, the central government had approved nine national laboratories, centered on these large research facilities. Third by the central government from around 2006
When considering the establishment of a national laboratory during the period, the company announced a policy to build a multidisciplinary national laboratory after increasing the number of national laboratories from several hundred to several thousand. In 2016, 200 million yuan was donated to the Qingdao Maritime National Laboratory, which is a representative laboratory following this policy.
[Chart VII-6] List of National Laboratories (as of 2018) Name Established Date Affiliated University / Research Organization City
Phase 1 State Key Laboratories
1 Synchrotron Radiation National Laboratory 1984 University of Science and Technology of China Hefei
2 Beijing Electronic Proton Accelerator National Laboratory
1984 Beijing Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
3 Lanzhou Ion Accelerator National Laboratory
1991 Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Contemporary Physics Lanzhou
4 Shenyang Materials Science National Laboratory 2000 Shenyang Institute of Metal Research Chinese Academy of Sciences
Phase 2 State Key Laboratories (construction approved in 2003, final qualification under review)
5 Beijing Condensed Matter Physics National Laboratory Under review Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics Beijing
6 Hefei Micromaterial Science National Laboratory
Under review China University of Science and Technology Hefei
7 Tsinghua University State Key Laboratories for Information Science and Technology
Tsinghua University Beijing Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science Under review Peking University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry Beijing
9 Wuhan Opt-Electonics State Key Laboratories
Under review Central China Science and Technology University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan
Institute of Science and Mathematics, China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation,
717th Laboratory
Wuhan
Third State Key Laboratories (Construction approved after 2006, final qualification under review)
10 Qingdao Marine Science and Technology National Fruit
Laboratory
2013 Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Marine Research
Place etc.
Qingdao
11 Magnetic Confinement Fusion National Laboratory
Under review, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei Institute of Materials Science, Atom
Power Industry Southwest Physics Research Institute
Hefei
Chengdu
12 Green Energy State Key Laboratories
Under review, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian
13 National Laboratory for Marine and Marine Engineering Under review Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai
14 Microstructure National Laboratory Under review Nanjing University Nanjing
15 State Key Laboratories for Serious and Intractable Diseases Under review China Medical Science Institute Beijing
16 National Laboratory of Protein Sciences Under review China Institute of Science, Institute of Biophysics Beijing
17 National Laboratory of Aviation Science and Technology Under review Beijing Aviation Aeronautics and Astronautics University Beijing
18 Hyundai Orbital Transportation National Laboratory Under Examination Southwest Jiaotong University Chengdu
19 State Key Laboratories of Contemporary Agricultural Technology Under review China Agricultural University Beijing
Source: Create CRDS based on various data
(2) National Nanoscience Center While nanotechnology has been attracting worldwide attention, the China National Nanoscience Center was established by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tsinghua University and Beijing University as the first joint project between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Education. Our center is located on the premises of the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and is located on the premises of nanodevices, nanomaterials, bioimpact and safety assessment of nanomaterials, nanocharacterization, nano standardization, nanomanufacture.
Holds a laboratory such as Gu.
③ Supercomputer
According to the world supercomputer performance ranking "TOP500" announced in June 2017, "Sunway TaihuLight" developed by the Wuxi National Supercomputer Center in China was 93.01 PFLOPS for the second consecutive year in the world. Won first place.
The development of supercomputers in China is being competed by four parties: the Tianhe series of the National Defense Technology University, the Galactic series, the Nebula series of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Kamui series of the National Parallel Computer Engineering Center, and the Lenovo Group soaring series. In the situation. When it ranked first in June 2017, "Sunway TaihuLight" had adopted the domestically produced high-performance processor "SW26010" developed by the National Parallel Computer Engineering Research Center (NRCPC).
China's supercomputer was led not only by hardware, but also by Associate Professor FU Haoheng of Tsinghua University.The research team has developed "non-linear seismic simulation" software based on "Sunway TaihuLight" and won the 2017 Gordon Bell Award, and the development of supercomputer application software is also world-class. Has reached. In the "TOP500" announced in November 2019, "Sunway TaihuLight" was ranked third in the world and "Tianhe-2" was ranked fourth, following 2018.
(4) Tokamak-type fusion device: EAST The Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Hefei City, Anhui Province) is working on the development of the world's first tokamak-type fusion device using superconducting technology, EAST301. The Institute of Plasma Physics has been working on the modification of the tokamak fusion device HT-7 introduced from Russia, but EAST was developed as the next-generation device. In August 2012, the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Institute for Fusion Science of Japan, and the National Institute for Fusion Science (NFRI) worked on "Study on Important Physical Issues Related to High-Performance Plasma Steering" in Jeju Island, South Korea. Held a shop and held "A3 Four" in the fusion area of ​​Japan, China and South Korea.
"Sitegram" was officially launched. The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), and the Korea Research Foundation (NRF) have jointly invested 15 million yuan over a five-year period. In 2017, it achieved a plasma duration of 101.2 seconds and a plasma temperature of 50 million degrees Celsius. A large-scale science and technology facility under construction in China that aims to sustain a high-temperature plasma with a temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius for 1,000 seconds in the future.
Research implementation specified in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) for the construction of national self-renewal basic capacity
Established National Critical Science Infrastructure Construction Medium- to Long-term Plan (2012-2030) Research facilities to be preferentially constructed during the 12th Five-Year Plan
1 Spallation Neutron Source 1 Submarine Observation Network
2 Strong magnetic field device 2 High energy synchrotron radiation verification device
3 Large astronomical telescope LAMOST 3 Accelerator-driven transmutation system
4 Oceanology Comprehensive Research Vessel 4 Comprehensive Extreme Condition Generation Experimental Equipment (Ultra Low Temperature, etc.)
5 Aviation Remote Sensoring System 5 Large Current Heavy Ion Accelerator
6 Aircraft freezing experiment wind tunnel 6 High combustion efficiency, low carbon gas turbine test equipment
7 Crustal movement observation network 7 High altitude cosmic ray observation station
8 Material Safety Evaluation Facility 8 Future Communication Network Experimental Equipment
9 National Center for Protein Science 9 Space Environment Simulator
10 Large Space Environment Infrastructure Observation System (Midnight
Process)
10 Translational Medical Research Facility
11 Very low frequency for underground resource exploration and earthquake prediction
Electromagnetic observation system
11 Antarctic Observatory
12 Agricultural Biosafety Research Center
12 Precision Gravity Surveyor
13 Large low-speed wind tunnel
14 Expansion of Shanghai light source experiment station
15 Model animal phenotypes and genetic analysis facilities
16 Numeric Earth System Simulator
As a representative example of the above large-scale research facility, the Shanghai light source and pulsed super-strong magnetic field generator of the synchrotron radiation facility are shown below.
introduce.
<Synchrotron radiation facility: Shanghai light source>
At the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, China Academy of Sciences, China's largest radiation facility "Shanghai Light Source" (located in Zhangjiang High-Tech Park, Shanghai) has been constructed and has been in operation since 2009. The acceleration energy is 3.5 GeV, the storage ring length is 432 m, and it is a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility.
A total of three synchrotron radiation facilities in China, including the State Key Laboratories for Micromaterials (Hefei City, Anhui Province) of the University of Science and Technology of China and the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Beijing City) of the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. There is a facility. <Pulse super strong magnetic field generator>
Development of the pulsed ultra-strong magnetic field generator was started by Huazhong University of Science and Technology in April 2008 and completed in October 2014. This experimental device is one of the 12 national critical scientific research facilities and devices designated by the "National Voluntary Innovation Basic Capacity Construction Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010)", and has a maximum magnetic field of 50T to 80T (maximum magnetic field 50T to 80T). It was designed with a pulse width of 2,250ms to 15ms (steady state), and a total of 133 million yuan was input.
7.3.1.3. Industry-academia-government collaboration / regional promotion
① Chinese Academy of Sciences / Hospital Site Cooperation Project
In 1998, the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the "Hospital Cooperation 302" project, which is a cross-sectional collaboration project with companies and local governments. In this project, since 2000, Qingdao Bioenergy Process Research Institute, Yomidai Coastal Zone Research Institute, Suzhou Nanotech Research Institute, Suzhou Biomedical Engineering Research Institute, Ningbo Materials Technology and Engineering Research Institute, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, etc. Established a research institute for economic development issues in the eastern coast. In such industry-academia-government collaboration, the regional administration side provides land and buildings, and the academy side provides researchers, research equipment, and operating funds. After the establishment of the new research institute, we will carry out outsourced research and development and joint research and development as a project according to the demand of the company. Most of the project funding is provided by the enterprise and some is nationally competitively funded.
Research institutes under the Academy of Sciences are encouraged by the Headquarters of the Academy of Sciences to bridge the technological accumulation to the region and industry, and each research institute promotes "institutional cooperation" through technology transfer and start-up support. doing. However, in the case of complicated technology transfer issues, not only research institutes under the Academy of Sciences but also many other institutions may be involved in research and business. According to a hearing from the assistant director of the Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (equivalent to the deputy director of the administrative office), which was established by the hospital cooperation project, the research institute did not conduct basic research and went to industry. In order to bridge the technology, we are concentrating only on market-conscious application / development research, and even high-quality research projects may be terminated in 5 to 6 years if there is no prospect of commercialization. That is. A venture company that has succeeded in manufacturing MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) inspection equipment has spun out from the institute, and as of June 2018, about 200 units had already been sold in China. This venture company develops in Shenzhen Advanced Technology Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences and produces in Shanghai. Where to derive highly original technology
It is said that the challenges of this institute are how to enter and how to acquire and retain excellent young human resources. Regarding the former, efforts are being made to introduce highly original technology from Japan and other countries, and regarding the latter, it depends on how good salaries are given. In many cases, like our institute, activities by hospital cooperation projects are focusing on development for industrialization, such as encouraging researchers to spin out from the institute.
② Chinese Academy of Sciences / STSN Program
Based on the above-mentioned hospital cooperation project, the Chinese Academy of Sciences will bridge the achievements of science and technology to local companies and local governments through cross-disciplinary collaboration with many research institutes and organizations in a wider area in order to respond to complex issues. The STSN (Science and Technology Service Network) program 303 to be promoted was launched. The STSN program offers from local governments and businesses in areas such as the formation of strategic emerging industries, technological sophistication of mid-sized companies, improvement of agricultural technology, natural resources, environmental conservation, and management of the urban environment associated with urbanization. Conduct contract research. The contact department of the STSN program receives requests for research projects, and the Science and Technology Promotion Bureau (hereinafter referred to as the Promotion Bureau), which manages the program, conducts open recruitment within the Academy of Sciences. Regarding the sharing of research funds, the Promotion Bureau will bear 70% of the research funds borne by the Academy of Sciences, and each research institute will bear 30%. Ultimately, if the project achieves its original goal setting, the Promotion Bureau will refund the contribution of each institute as an incentive. __③ Establishment of high-tech industrial development zone based on the timers plan Since 1988, the timers plan to construct a national-level high-tech industrial development zone throughout China with the aim of promoting commercialization, industrialization, and international expansion of research results. It is carried out by the Ministry of Science and Technology. This can be regarded as a further extension of the special economic zone system introduced in 1980 and the National Economic and Technological Development Zone started in 1984.
In the development zone, tax incentives are being implemented for product exporters and high-tech companies, and Beijing's "Zhongguancun" was the first to be certified. As of 2016, there are 146 development zones nationwide.
④ National voluntary innovation model zone
The National Voluntary Innovation Model Zone is a system in which each region proposes itself and those approved by the State Council receive designation. The purpose is to connect the research and development of important specific projects promoted by the government to innovation, and to build various innovation systems according to the characteristics of the region. The "Science and Technology 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)" stipulates a policy to expand support for national voluntary innovation model zones.
Beijing Zhongguancun National Innovation Model Zone, which was designated as the first National Innovation Model Zone in March 2009, aims to become a globally influential science and technology innovation center and high-tech industrial base. In "Integration," it aims to "build an intellectual property rights system model park and play a leading role in promoting the thorough implementation of the national intellectual property rights strategy." Following Beijing Zhongseki Village, 21 locations (September 2019), including Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone, Shanghai Zhangjiang National Voluntary Innovation Model Zone, and Hefei, Wuhu, and Bengbu National Voluntary Innovation Model Zones in Anhui Province. Currently) is specified 305. ① Key Universities, Global COE
Since 1993, China has designated "Key Universities" with the aim of fostering 100 universities toward the 21st century. In 1998, the "Education Promotion Action Plan for the 21st Century (211 Project)" was to be implemented to further prioritize some of these key universities. This plan is generally called "985 Project" because it was proposed in May 1998. Furthermore, in October 2015, the State Council announced "Overall Measures to Promote the Construction of World-class Universities and Departments." The goal is: "Some universities and departments will reach world-class standards by 2020, more universities and departments will reach world-class standards by 2030, and world-class universities and departments by 2050. The number and quality of these will be at the forefront of the world and will become a powerhouse of higher education. " (2) University innovation capacity improvement plan implementation plan (2011 plan)
In March 2012, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Finance jointly announced the "University Innovation Capacity Improvement Plan Implementation Plan (2011 Plan)". Aiming to "promote resource sharing and interdisciplinary fusion, develop human resources and improve research level CRDS" by "breaking down the barriers between universities, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and other national research institutes and improving innovation capabilities by strengthening cooperation" There is. The applicant is a research group organized by multiple research institutes led by universities, and applies for qualifications to the "Joint Innovation Center". It is recommended that accredited centers establish appropriate cooperative relationships with national research institutes, companies, regional governments and overseas institutions. The Joint Innovation Center is a "state-of-the-art type (pre-science)" aiming at "the cutting edge of science and technology", and a "cultural tradition type (cultural tradition)" aiming at "improving the soft power of the country". "Emerging
It is classified into four categories (types): "industrial type (industrial industry)" aiming at "promotion of industry and reconstruction of old heavy industry base" and "regional promotion type (area development)" aiming at regional revitalization. The joint innovation center costs 50 million yuan (about 1 billion yen) a year for the "state-of-the-art type" and 30 million yuan (about 600 million yen) a year for the "cultural tradition type", "industrial type" and "regional type". ) Is subsidized by the government for 4 years. Since 2012, centers have been selected once a year. 14 centers in “state-of-the-art” in the first phase of 2013, 24 centers in “state-of-the-art” in the second phase of 2014, and 5 centers in “cultural tradition” in the third phase of 2014 Has been certified. 

 

USA
The United States is a country with a typical multi-funding system in which various research funds are coexisted according to the purpose, and each ministry and its affiliated national research institute and federal research and development center (FFRDC) 38 have their own. We support and promote basic, applied, and development research in each field. Major research funding agencies in basic research include NIH in the medical field, NSF in the field of science and engineering, and DOE Science Foundation (DOE / SC) 39 in the field of energy. As an institution specializing in fund allocation, NSF allocates almost all research funds (98%) to researchers in external organizations such as universities. On the other hand, each organization other than NSF has both an internal research function and an external funding function. For example, NIH allocates 80% of its research funds to universities, etc. as external (extramural) research funds, while allocating 20% ​​to internal (intramural) research funds for research and development at its 27 research institutes and centers. There is. The same is true for DOD, with 60% externally funded and 40% internal.
Dedicated to research. In contrast, DOE uses 60% of its research funds at 17 internal research institutes, while allocating the rest to the outside through DOE / SC and other means. NSF, the central funding agency, has stated in its latest Strategic Plan 40, Investing in Discovery and Innovation for the Future: NSF Strategic Plan 2018-2022 (2018) 41: ① Science, Engineering, Learning Smell
(2) Strengthen national power to deal with current and future issues (3) Set three strategic goals of fulfilling NSF missions and improving business performance, and short-, medium- to long-term goals and means of achieving them. Has been clarified. In addition, as the centerpiece of the FY2019 business, it has set out a budget for "10 big ideas that NSF should invest in the future." These 10 big ideas are "Expansion of Convergence Research in NSF", "NSF INCLUDES (Expansion of Diversity through Science and Mathematics Education)", "Medium-scale Research Infrastructure", and "NSF 2026 (Long-term Support for Innovative Ideas)". Four themed "realization ideas" and six themes "data revolution", "human and technology frontier", "understanding of the laws of life", "quantum leap", "window of the universe", and "North Pole" It consists of "research ideas".
One of the characteristics of the US funding system is the existence of an institution that specializes in high-risk, high-payoff research support. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 42 of DOD, which created the Internet and stealth technology, is representative, and the DOE has the Energy Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA-E) 43 following the success of DARPA. In the field of intelligence, there is the Intelligence Advanced Research Program Activity (IARPA) 44 under the jurisdiction of the Director of National Intelligence of the Intelligence (ODNI). In principle, the results of research and development using federal government funds are widely disclosed and utilized, and each ministry and agency has a policy of publicizing and utilizing them based on the directive issued by OSTP in February 2013. Plans have been developed to expand public access to funded research results (papers, data, etc.). Meanwhile, the friction between the US and China's high-tech fields developed in 2018 has a direct impact on the US R & D funding system. A full investigation and response by funding agencies was undertaken, recognizing that organized actions by certain countries could pose a risk of infringement of research integrity and integrity in the United States. In April 2018, NIH requested its affiliated research institutes and universities and research institutes in the United States that receive their research funding to start a thorough investigation, and in August of the same year, further foreign governments and companies. He called for thorough measures to disclose the financial relationship with. The NSF was commissioned by the scientific advisory group JASON in March 2019, based on evidence provided by major public funding agencies such as NSF, NIH and DOE, as well as other intelligence and law enforcement agencies. The survey was conducted and the report "Security of Basic Research" was published on December 11. The report confirmed that maintaining openness in basic research in the United States and an open research environment in which foreign human resources gather and collaborate guarantees the superiority of science and technology in the United States, while the impact of certain countries. Recommended that measures such as improving transparency and clarifying conditions for disclosure of conflicts of responsibility and conflicts of interest in research should be taken immediately for problems that violate the safety and fairness of research. _
Life science / clinical medicine field
"All of Us" Research Program (Cohort Study for Personalized Medicine)
② BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) Initiative
③ Cancer Moonshot
④ Regenerative medicine innovation project
In the non-medical life science field, many ministries and agencies are conducting research and development activities. As a cross-ministerial initiative, the Biomass R & D Initiative based on the Biomass R & D Act of 2000 is being promoted by eight ministries and organizations centered on DOE and USDA. After identifying bioeconomy as one of the R & D budget priorities for 2021, the Trump administration will hold the "US Bioeconomy" Summit in October 2019 to prioritize and base R & D budgets related to bioeconomy. To promote research

Systems / Information Science and Technology Field
Artificial Intelligence (AI) Summit, September "US Leadership in Quantum Information Science"
The "Strengthening" Summit and the "5G Communication" Summit were held in September of the same year, and policy discussions were held by experts in 2021.
PCA will also be in these 11 areas.
① Artificial intelligence (AI)
② Computing for human interaction, communication, and ability improvement
(CHuman)
③ Computing (CNPS) to network physical systems
④ Cyber ​​Security and Privacy (CSP)
⑤ Education and human resources (EdW)
⑥ Research and development of high-capability computing system (EHCS)
⑦ High Capability Computing Infrastructure and Applications (HCIA)
⑧ Intelligent Robotics and Autonomous System (IRAS)
⑨ Large-scale data management and analysis (LSDMA)
⑩ Large-scale network (LSN)
⑪ Software productivity / sustainability / quality (SPSQ)
Cheong Wa Dae's intention for the 2020 NITRD budget is $ 5.5 billion in total, of which $ 970 million is related to AI, based on budget textbooks. Neither amount is included because the DOD and DARPA AI-related budgets are not disclosed.
Nanotechnology / Materials field
At NNI, (1) promotion of world-class nanotechnology R & D, (2) promotion of transfer of new technology to products for commercial and public interest, (3) education investment for nanotechnology development, securing of skilled labor force, infrastructure・ Twenty ministries and agencies are collaborating in research and development with the four strategic goals of equipment maintenance and (4) support for the responsible development of nanotechnology.
(1) Nanotechnology Signature Initiative (NSI) and Grand Challenge (GC) -Sustainable nano-manufacturing [NSI] -Nanoelectronics in 2020 and beyond [NSI] -Nanotechnology for sensors, for nanotechnology Sensor [NSI] -Water sustainability through nanotechnology [NSI] -Future computing grand challenge promoted by nanotechnology [GC]
② Basic research
③ Applications, devices and systems developed by nanotechnology
④ Research infrastructure and instrumentation
⑤ Environment, health, safety
R & D in the advanced manufacturing field This program is an advanced manufacturing national professional located at NIST.
It is operated by participating institutions such as DOD, DOE, NIST, and NSF with the Gram Bureau (AMNPO) as the secretariat, and aims to build the Manufacturing Innovation Research Institute (MII) as an advanced manufacturing research base for the industry-academia sector. There is. So far, 14 MIIs have been established, 8 of which have been established by DOD, 5 by DOE, and 1 by DOC, in various technical fields such as laminated molding, digital manufacturing, biotechnology, and energy. The 74 Trump administration has set three goals for research and development: (1) development of new manufacturing technology, (2) education, training, and network construction of human resources in the manufacturing industry, and (3) expansion of the domestic manufacturing supply chain. Below, strategic efforts are underway to secure critical minerals in light of the international situation. The Department of Commerce (DOC) has announced a strategy to secure the supply of rare minerals, including an action plan for the entire government agency, and has set out measures to reduce the dependence of rare minerals on the outside world, such as recycling, development of alternative technologies, and strengthening of the supply chain. 77.

European Union (EU)
Among the general bureaus that play the same role as ministries in the European Commission, which is the EU's administrative body, research
The Directorate General of Innovation (DG-RTD) is in charge of science and technology innovation. In addition, other general bureaus such as the general bureau of enterprises and industry, the general bureau of environment, the general bureau of communication networks, contents and technology, and the general bureau of energy are also formulating policies related to science and technology innovation in their respective fields of responsibility. DG-RTD coordinates the proposals prepared by each of these general bureaus and compiles them as policy proposals. Next, there is a mechanism called SAM (Scientific Advice Mechanism) as a mechanism for scientific advice to the European Commission. SAM aims to provide the following scientific advice: At the heart of SAM is a group of experts called high-level groups. It consists of seven experts from a wide range of fields (molecular biology / cell biology, sociology, material science, nuclear power, meteorology, mathematics, microbiology). Its role is to (1) provide scientific advice along with evidence and empirical rules (including information on its certainty and limitations) to problems for which scientific advice from an independent standpoint is indispensable in European policy making. By (2) giving advice to identify a particular policy issue, and (3) making suggestions for improvement on how the European Commission should interact with independent scientific advice on policy-making in the European Union. is there. In addition, the European Commission's research on the secretariat function that supports high-level groups
It is kept in the Directorate General of Novation. In addition, the European Commission has a think tank called the Joint Research Center (JRC) inside, which utilizes the information obtained from it. JRC is positioned as one of the general bureaus of the European Commission, and conducts scientific research that helps the European Commission to formulate policies in its respective fields of specialization, and provides advice based on the results. For example, research on food safety standards and efficient energy use. In addition, there are a variety of ways to incorporate the voices of academia, industry and governments.
Governments of member states and academic societies of each country can express their opinions at any time in response to the request for opinions of the European Commission, and there is also a research consortium called ERA-NET, and the contents discussed here may be referred to. ..
The above contents are shown in. First, the European Commission has a policy bill (bill)
To be determined. Policy development reflects advice from think tanks and other advisory bodies under the European Commission, as well as opinions through various channels. The draft policy is consulted by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. The policy programs approved there will be implemented through research support implementing agencies. In the graphene project, 61 academia institutions across 17 European countries, centered on Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. 
And 14 companies conso
-Forming a siam. The Human Brain Project forms a consortium of 80 partners from inside and outside the region, centered on the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and mainly in Europe. From Japan, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University and RIKEN are participating.
In April 2016, quantum technology was announced as the third project of FET Flagships. The project has been actually promoted since 2018 based on the final report of October 2017 on the governance and implementation system of the project compiled by the Senior Steering Committee.
Furthermore, at the end of 2018, "Energy / Environment / Climate Change", "ICT / Connected Society", and "Health / Rye"
A total of 6 projects, 2 each in the field of science, were selected as pilot projects. These projects will be validated for a year starting in March 2019 with € 1 million in support. From 2021, up to 3 projects will be adopted and receive full-scale support. One of the features of the FET Flagships program is the selection process of support recipients. When selecting a project in 2013, as a condition for adoption, during the 18 months of the selection period, applicants will build a cross-country research network and obtain financial support from funding agencies and companies in each country. The condition was to create a system that could bear half of the amount required to promote the project. In other words, the program design incorporates a mechanism to further nurture the network that is trying to sprout in Europe. Two projects were finally selected in the selection process at this time. However, four other sustainable projects have been created in the process, and by promising financial support for two projects, they have succeeded in creating six knowledge production networks as a result. Regarding infrastructure development, the EU has a European research infrastructure strategy for the development of research infrastructure throughout Europe.
A forum formed by EU member states called the Forum (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructure: ESFRI) was established in 2002. ESFRI announced the "ESFRI Roadmap 2006" developed by experts in 2006. This is a roadmap for R & D facilities that will be needed in common in Europe when looking 10 to 20 years from now. Since then, this roadmap has been updated in 2008, 2010, 2016 and 2018, and now 55 projects in 6 areas: energy, environment, health / food, physical chemistry / engineering, social / cultural innovation, and digital. Is listed. Examples of facilities include observation facilities for global environmental research, huge databases for genome analysis, and state-of-the-art ultra-high-speed supercomputers. Of these, the EU is deeply involved as an institution, and the scale
The following describes the projects (projects that have already progressed from the planning stage) at the stage where the research facilities / infrastructure are currently in operation or construction. __ European Spallation Source (ESS) 91 The European Spallation Neutron Source has begun construction as a next-generation neutron generation research facility with the world's strongest neutron source. In 2009, the city of Lund, Sweden, was selected as a research center construction site, aiming to become the world's leading material research center in Europe. Construction of the European spallation neutron source began in 2013, and in October 2015, the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) corporation was established to operate the facility. The user program is scheduled to start in 2023, and the investment and operating costs will be borne by the 17 participating countries, with Sweden and the co-sponsored country Denmark guaranteeing part of the construction and operating costs. A total of about 1.5 billion euros is required for construction and equipment costs. Lund University, also located in the city of Lund, is planning to build a synchrotron radiation facility and is expected to become a research base in the fields of materials science and biology in the future. There are also plans to build a facility in Bilbao, Spain, to manufacture ESS parts. ② The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) 92
The European Maximum Telescope is a next-generation large-scale optical infrared telescope with a diameter of about 40 meters, which is being planned for realization at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) from around 2005. We are aiming to start operation in 2024. It is estimated that the annual operating cost will be about 750 million euros. The main body of operation is the European Southern Observatory, which is an organization jointly operated by 14 European countries and Brazil, but countries such as Japan may also participate.
In the environment and energy field, "Integrated SET-PLAN 96" and "Industrial Leadership", in the key technology category of advanced manufacturing, energy-reducing manufacturing technology and energy-efficient buildings , Research on manufacturing technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is a priority. In addition, in the key technology category of space, research on environmentally friendly rocket launchers is underway. Next, in "Responding to social issues," (1) safe, clean, and efficient energy, (2) smart, environmentally friendly and integrated transportation, (3) dealing with climate change, resource efficiency and raw materials. Research in the fields of environment and energy is about to be promoted in terms of issues. In (1), themes such as buildings with near zero emissions, low-priced and low-environmental impact power supply, and a European-level power grid connecting distributed renewable energy sources are mentioned. In (2), research to improve transportation and transportation in urban areas is being promoted, and in (3), research is being promoted to raise understanding of climate change and present better countermeasures.
In the nuclear field, Euratom, a framework program in that field, is in operation. Euroatom will be allocated € 1.6 billion between 2014 and 2020 under Horizon 2020.
Life Science / Clinical Medicine The current pillars of research policy in the life science field are personalized medicine, environment and health, public health, etc. , Towards personalized medicine
The policy to utilize mix data was shown. Regarding the environment and health, the third goal of the 7th Environmental Action Program mentioned in the section "Environment and Energy" (reducing environmental threats to people's health and welfare) is the basic policy. Regarding public health, the policy is to promote research that contributes to the utilization of evidence for medical system reform, the utilization of various medical systems in Europe and the mutual use of data, and the assessment of medical technology. , "Industrial
Biotechnology is listed as one of the key technologies in "Dership". In this category, research on themes such as the development of biological and biomedical diagnostic devices is about to proceed. In addition, "Responding to Social Issues" shows efforts in this field in the categories of health, demographic changes and welfare. According to it, (1) disease research (chronic diseases, infectious diseases, etc.), (2) specific issues (efficiency of medical systems, development of new medicines and vaccines, fairness of medical care), (3) development of methodologies, tools, and technologies (rare diseases). (Treatment, custom-made, telemedicine, etc.) priorities are listed. We are also supporting the development of innovative medicines through investment in IMI2, the joint technology initiative (JTI) in the field of medicine mentioned above.
In the field of systems and information science and technology, future and emerging technologies (FETs), research on advanced technologies using ICT as infrastructure is underway. Particularly large are the graphene, human brain and quantum technology projects (detailed in 3.3.1.4). In "Industrial Leadership," ICT is designated as one of the six key technologies, with by far the largest investment (€ 7.6 billion) planned (second place is nanotechnology and space). And about 1.5 billion euros each). ICT also plays an infrastructural role in responding to social issues. In particular, ICT-related research will be promoted on issues such as medical care, clean energy, and transportation with a small environmental load. In addition, the European Innovation and Technology Organization (EIT) will promote research and education in the digital field. The main themes here are smart space, smart energy system, health / medical care, future digital city, future media / content distribution, and intelligent transportation system.
In addition to expanding R & D investment, infrastructure development, industrial innovation, human resource development, etc. for the development and development of nanotechnology and materials, promotion of health, safety, environment, consumer protection and international cooperation Nanotechnology and advanced materials are designated as two of the six key technologies in "Industrial Leadership," which advocates a focus on these two initiatives. In the former, research on nanomaterials, nanodevices, and nanosystems, research on safety and social aspects of nanotechnology, and research on improvement of manufacturing processes of nanomaterials and parts are underway. In the latter, functional materials such as automatic restoration, large-scale and sustainable material manufacturing technology, measurement / standardization / quality control technology, etc. are prioritized. Investment in nanotechnology and materials in "industrial leadership" is around € 1.5 billion and € 1.4 billion, respectively. When these are added, it ranks second after 7.6 billion euros in the ICT field, indicating that it is a high-priority field in technological development. In addition, a huge project FET (Future and Emerging Technologies) of 1 billion euros in 10 years is being promoted with the aim of supporting the formation of top-class research bases in the EU, Graphene, which started in 2013.
Flagship, Human Brain Project and Quantum Flagship, which started in 2018, are also closely related to the fields of nanotechnology and materials.

United Kingdom
Examples of programs by UKRI, Research Council and Innovate UK.
① Future Leaders Fellowship 114
This is a large-scale fellowship for young researchers launched by UKRI in 2018. A large budget of £ 900 million has been allocated over 11 years. We plan to conduct six public offerings between 2018 and 2021 to support at least 550 fellows. It provides up to 7 years of funding for early career researchers and innovators, making it easier for researchers to challenge ambitious and challenging research areas. Fellows selected will receive £ 1.2m in the first four years and will receive support for the next three years, depending on their valuation.
The purpose of this system is to help the next generation of technology entrepreneurs, business leaders and innovators receive the support they need to develop their careers. The system is open to the highest levels of researchers around the world, ensuring that the UK continues to retain the best talent, no matter where it comes from.
② CASE studentships (Collaborative Awards in Science and Engineering)
CASE is a study 

his is a scholarship program for training doctoral students by conference. Students receive research guidance from both universities and businesses and earn PhDs. Students are enrolled in college but must engage in corporate research for a minimum of three months. Most of the support burden comes from the research council, but companies also provide additional funding. The name, number of applicants, budget, etc. vary from research conference to research conference, but usually the target period is 3 to 4 years, and the recruitment number is about 30 to 90 people per year at each research conference. The minimum scholarship amount is about £ 14,000 per year. In addition, there are additional subsidies from companies. Participating companies, excluding small companies, also need to bear part of the cost of research projects.
③ Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTP) 115
KTP is primarily a program that helps postdocs or university graduates participate in innovative projects in a company, typically one to three years (minimum 10 weeks). It is managed and operated by Innovate UK. The program aims to build partnerships between companies and academic institutions and use the knowledge, skills and skills of academic institutions to increase the competitiveness and productivity of British industry. For companies, it has the advantage of acquiring academia skills and expertise, and for academic institutions, it has the advantage of being able to build cooperative relationships with industry.
Personnel costs, research equipment / material costs, indirect costs, etc. will be supported by the program. For small and medium-sized enterprises, one-third of the total cost, for large enterprises, half is borne by the government, and the rest is borne by the government.
According to the 2013 KTP Report 116, the actual result was a £ 211m increase in revenue for the entire project and more than 450 new jobs created. In addition, annual exports increased by £ 207m, with capital and R & D investments totaling £ 95m. For every £ 1m of government investment, 25 new jobs were created, 353 were trained, £ 2.2m was invested in capital investment and £ 3.06 million was invested in research and development. According to the OECD's movement of research personnel across borders between 2006 and 2016 (aggregation based on the movement of the author's affiliation), the movement of UK researchers overseas is based on the UK. The largest number of travelers traveled between the United States, 39,645 from the United Kingdom to the United States and 38,238 from the United States to the United Kingdom, for a total of 77,883. Germany (18,829 in total), Australia (18,778 in total), Canada (13,455 in total), and France (12,794 in total) are the next most frequent countries to travel to the United Kingdom. It can be seen that there is a lot of movement between English-speaking countries and major European countries. Major top-class research centers in the UK
Research field Location of research base
Overview
Environment and Energy UK Energy Research Center (UKERC) London (Research bases are all over the country) Established in 2004. Conducting world-class research on sustainable future energy systems. It is a hub for energy research in the UK and a contact point for connecting energy research communities in the UK and abroad. It is subsidized by one of the cross-research conference programs, the Energy Program for the Low Carbon Future.
Life Sciences European Institute for Bioinformatics (EMBL-EBI) Hinxton (Cambridgeshire)
1992 as a division of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)
Founded. Providing a database related to bioinformatics
We are conducting research. Most of the operating funds are from EU
Contributed by the governments of EMBL participating countries centered on the country.
Information Science and Technology Cambridge University Computer Laboratory Cambridge
Founded in 1937. An organization at the University of Cambridge that conducts a wide range of research in areas such as computer science, engineering, technology, and mathematics. Nanotechnology and Materials Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge
Cambridge Founded in 1874. Institute of Physics, University of Cambridge. So far, 29 Nobel laureates have been produced. Francis Crick and James Watson were awarded the Medical Physiology Award in 1962 for discovering the double helix structure of DNA when they were enrolled at the institute.
In addition, there are many research institutes built with the aim of becoming the world's leading top-level research base. Here, as representative examples, the Francis Crick Institute 117, the National Graphene Institute (NGI) 118, and the Alan Turing Institute (Alan Turing Institute) 119 are introduced. Francis Crick Institute MRC, UK Cancer Research, Wellcome Trust, University College Ron to provide a substantial bridge between basic and applied research, including the development of new medicines and therapies.
It is a research and development institution established in London with the support of six institutions: Don, Imperial College London, and King's College London. A total of £ 650 million was invested by these six institutions in the construction of the institute. The number of staff is about 3,000 (including about 1,500 researchers and 1,250 support staff), and it is characterized by hiring young researchers as PIs through international recruitment and being able to work for up to 10 years. Since the institute is intended to nurture the next generation of researchers and send them to the world, there are basically no tenure researchers. The institute conducts a wide range of research, from cancer research to elucidation of a wide range of diseases such as heart disease and infectious diseases, to the development of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods. Bridge research in collaboration with major British pharmaceutical companies (GSK, AstraZeneca, etc.) As a graphene global research technology center of the National Graphene Research Institute, the Nobel Physics Award (2010) was awarded for research on graphene. It was founded at the University of Manchester, the university where the award-winning Dr. Andre Geim and Dr. Konstantin Novoselov work. The construction work of the institute, which started in 2013, was completed in 2015 and is now in full operation. EPSRC has invested £ 38 million and the European Regional Development Fund has invested £ 23 million in the institute, aiming to commercialize and industrialize graphene as a base for the UK to lead the world in graphene research and development. There is. Alan Turing Institute A study established in London with the support of EPSRC, Cambridge University, Oxford University, University of Edinburgh, University College London, and Warwick University in 2015, announced by the 2014 budget. organ. It bears the name of Alan Turing, a renowned British mathematician and computer scientist who helped crack German cryptographic communications during World War II. Receive £ 42 million in government investment over five years. When it was first established, it focused on data science, but in 2017 it also joined artificial intelligence (AI). University of London in 2018
Eight universities, Eaen Mary, University of Leeds, University of Manchester, Newcastle University, University of Southampton, University of Birmingham, University of Exeter, and University of Bristol also participated to further expand the network. The three goals are "promote world-class research and apply it to solving real-world problems," "cultivate future leaders in the fields of data science and AI," and "promote dialogue with citizens."
Research infrastructure development
In the UK, it is recognized that the world's leading position in research and innovation is based on a highly internationally competitive, high-quality, available research and innovation infrastructure network. The research / innovation infrastructure referred to here includes the following.  Large-scale physical research facilities such as synchrotrons, research vessels, and scientific satellites
 Technology / electronic infrastructure networks such as data / computer systems and communication networks
 Knowledge-based resources, including science, culture and art collections and archives
Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund (ISCF) 126
ISCF is a program aimed at solving technical and social issues faced by industry through industry-academia joint research and development, and is being promoted mainly by Innovate UK in collaboration with UKRI. Beginning in 2016, a total of 24 technical themes (challenge) have been set over the third stage. The first was decided on six important themes for the government, and the second was decided on eight themes based on the demands of the sector. After that, "creative industrial cluster" was also selected as a technical theme through a sector deal between industry and the government. In the 3rd session, themes in line with the four grand challenges indicated in the above-mentioned industrial strategy were solicited through open recruitment, and based on the proposals gathered, Innovaete UK, BEIS, the Ministry of Finance, universities and industry were closely involved. Discussions were held and nine themes were set. Modeled after the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DAPRA), ISCF selects challenge directors by theme and promotes the project at the discretion of the director. Many of the directors are from industry, but they are also selected from academia.
Funding from industry is mandatory, with primary and secondary technology themes being equally divided between government and industry, and third being government 1 at a rate of 1.5 from industry. Seeking. Up to the second challenge, £ 896 million has already been invested in the 497 project.
The name of each challenge and the government budget for each are shown in Chart IV-10. Catapult Program 127 The Catapult Program aims to build a world-leading technological and innovation hub for the UK in specific technological areas. With these bases as a place for industry-academia collaboration, companies, engineers, and scientists will work together to carry out research and development toward the final stage, create innovation, put research results to practical use, and promote economic growth. Has been done. Innovate UK under UKRI
Is a program under the jurisdiction of. As of December 2019, the program has catapult centers as bases in 10 technical fields. The Catapult Center is a place where the industry creates world-class technological capabilities that can solve technical problems, and at the same time, it utilizes the knowledge of universities, etc. for cooperation between companies or parts that companies cannot solve. It is also a platform for long-term investment to deliver new products and services in the UK. The program assumes that industry will be the main player in the practical application of research results, and aims to promote research and development through active initiatives from industry. The public funds invested through Innovate UK are basically used to operate the catapult center, not to carry out research projects. Public funds may be used for projects such as improving infrastructure such as facilities, but this is an exceptional case. In this sense, the catapult program itself is not the parent body of funding. Ideally, the Catapult Center's operating capital should be one-third each of government funding from Innovate UK, funding from industry, and external funding. The mechanism of industry-academia-government bridging in the catapult program is the following four points.
 Sustainable base development utilizing existing research infrastructure
 Industry-led R & D promotion that enables industry-academia-government collaboration from an early stage of R & D
 Incorporating small and medium-sized enterprises in the UK and strengthening their scientific and technological capabilities 
 

Strengthening local R & D capabilities
Technology readiness level targeted by the catapult program
Readiness Levels: TRL) covers TRL3 (proof of concept) to TRL8 (performance demonstration). __ Small Business Research Initiative (SBRI) The Small Business Research Initiative (SBRI) is a research grant program that seeks to promote innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises using public procurement. It was launched in 2001 and is Innovate. It is operated by the UK. At the beginning, the details of R & D entrusted to SMEs and the specific selection process were not specified, and the numerical target of 2.5% of the R & D budget of each ministry and the public offering were widely made on the websites of each ministry and agency. Only what to do was decided, and the actual details were left to each ministry and agency. For this reason, the number of ministries and agencies that participated was limited, and the consignment was limited to the conventional method, so the expected effect could not be obtained. Therefore, based on the proposals for SBRI reform in the Sainsbury Review, etc., a pilot project for institutional reform was implemented in 2008, and the reformed SBRI has been introduced in earnest since 2009. SBRI's funding demand gap for seeds of companies in a relatively early stage
It plays a role of filling. Approximately 66% of all participating companies are start-ups and SMEs, and for these companies, signing an SBRI contract and implementing a project means finding new business opportunities and giving them the opportunity to bring their own ideas to the market. To do. SBRI's Phase I phase is a proof of concept and will be paid up to £ 100,000 in up to 6 months. Phase II is the prototyping and development phase, with up to £ 1m paid for up to two years. Intellectual property created in the course of the project will be owned by the company and will not be handled by Innovate UK.
For example, one of the successful cases is the development and commercialization of Noctura 400 Sleep Mask (a mask used by patients with eye diseases such as blindness as a part of treatment during sleep) by PolyPhotonix. The company's 2015 revenue was over £ 3m. In addition, the facial freckle removal technology developed by the company is being put to practical use at the Process Innovation Center (CPI) of the high-value manufacturing catapult center, which is one of the catapult programs. In the new SBRI since April 2009, 82 ministries and public organizations such as the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Health (at that time) have made 360 ​​public offerings and signed 3,060 SBRI contracts, amounting to 470 million pounds (the amount is 470 million pounds). As of October 2017).
④ Innovation Vaouchers
Innovation Voucher is a program run by Innovate UK that promotes industry-academia collaboration and technology transfer between universities and public research institutes and SMEs so that companies can seek new knowledge outside their own network. It is a voucher system to do. SMEs and start-ups can get up to £ 5,000 in vouchers from their colleges and universities.
It can be used to pay for knowledge and technology transfer from experts in public research institutes. Vouchers are available to companies that have never been subsidized by Innovation UK for innovation vouchers, and will be able to get the ideas they need to solve their problems from experts. .. It is also important that this idea fits into one of the themes specified by Innovate UK. Innovate UK conducts theme-specific recruitment every three months, and about 100 applicants will be selected. __
Environment / Energy, Life Science / Clinical Medicine, Systems / Information Science and Technology, Nano
Technology / Materials
Environment and Energy Sector The Climate Change Act was enacted in 2008, stipulating that greenhouse gas emissions be reduced by more than 80% in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. After that, the government will lead the world by appealing its position to lead the 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP15) in 2009 and by announcing plans and measures for transition to a low-carbon society. We are making various efforts in the environment and energy fields to become an environment-oriented country. With the reorganization in 2008, part of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Areas (Defra) and part of the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR) (at that time) were integrated into the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) (DECC). (At that time) was established, and it was decided to specialize in operations related to climate change and energy. For R & D in the field of environment and energy technology, DECC is a business innovation that plays a central role in promoting scientific research.
We have been formulating promotion measures in collaboration with the Ministry of Technology (BIS) (at that time), but as mentioned at the beginning, with the reorganization of ministries and agencies in July 2016, we are now the Ministry of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). Is integrated into. In 2009, the Low Green Vehicle Authority (OLEV129) was set up within BIS (at that time) with staff and funding from BIS (at that time), DECC (at that time), and the Ministry of Transport (DfT). OLEV supports the rapid marketing of ultra-low-emission vehicles to help reduce greenhouse gases, air pollution and economic growth. The National Strategy for Climate Change and Energy, UK's Transition Plan for a Low-Carbon Economy, 130, announced by DECC (then) in July 2009, will reduce greenhouse gases by 34% from 1990 levels by 2020. It is a comprehensive document showing how to achieve the goal. Three more detailed documents of the plan were published in the same month of the same year. First, BERR (at that time) and DECC (at that time)'s "British Low Carbon Industry Strategy" 131 maximizes the economic opportunities associated with the transition to a low carbon society while minimizing the costs associated with the transition. It is a plan for. The strategy revealed that up to £ 120 million will be spent on offshore wind technology, £ 60 million on wave and tidal technology, and £ 90 million on carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. Next, DECC (at that time) “Renewable Energy Strategy” 132 showed concrete measures toward the goal of supplying 15% of the energy used by renewable energy by 2020. In the process of achieving that goal, £ 100 billion of new investment and 500,000 new jobs are expected in the renewable energy sector. The UK government will expand the use of wind, hydro, wave and tidal power, biomass, etc. to supply electricity from renewable energy.
It is said. Finally, DfT's "Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future" 133 states that by using low carbon technology for emissions from transport, which accounts for 21% of greenhouse gases emitted in the UK, until 2050. Shows how it contributes to the goal of 80% reduction compared to 1990. In July 2010, DECC (then) published its first comprehensive and long-term analysis of UK energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in 2050, "Prospects for 2050" 134. The document analyzes the choices and conditions that must be addressed over the next 40 years to reach the goal of reducing greenhouse gases by 80% from 1990 levels by 2050. Furthermore, in December 2011, DECC (at that time) announced "Carbon Plan: Toward the Realization of a Low Carbon Future" 135, which clarified a series of plans to realize carbon reduction within the framework of energy policy. It was. As a strategic document on research and development in the environment and energy-related fields, BIS (at that time) published the "British Composite Material Strategy" 136 for promoting composite material development toward a low-carbon society in 2009, and developed and developed CCS. In 2010, DECC (at that time) and BIS (at that time) jointly announced the "CCS Industrial Strategy" 137 to promote the promotion.
In recent years, as OLEV was installed in BIS (at that time), the UK is focusing on the development and commercialization of ultra-low pollution vehicles. OLEV announced the "Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle Strategy in the UK" 138 in September 2013, showing the government's plan for the practical application of ultra-low-emission vehicles so that the greenhouse gas emission reduction plan by 2050 can be achieved. .. The Treasury's Fall 2013 budgeting policy also promised to invest £ 5 million in 2014 in an electric ultra-low pollution vehicle development program for public sector vehicles. The 2016 budget stipulates support for the Nuclear Manufacturing Program. Along with the start of a public offering to identify small modular reactors, more than £ 30 million is promised for the 21st century nuclear manufacturing technology program. This aims to create opportunities for nuclear research core bases in the north, such as the Nuclear Advanced Manufacturing Research Center and Sir Henry Royce Advanced Materials Research Institute, which are one of the high-value manufacturing catapults. In October 2017, BEIS announced a “clean growth strategy”. It has the high goal of reducing spending while maintaining cost reductions for consumers, creating good jobs and growing the economy, and is an important element of the government's industrial strategy. Is. As mentioned earlier, clean growth was identified as one of the key areas in the industrial strategy announced in November 2017. Against the backdrop of a global shift to clean growth, the aim is to maximize the profits of the UK industry. A related government initiative is to invest significantly in energy innovation towards 2021, with a commitment of £ 162 million to invest in innovations in the low-carbon industry. A plan to formulate a new strategy for the bioeconomy was also announced.
In June 2019, the UK Government passed a draft amendment to the 2008 Climate Change Act to set a statutory policy goal of zero net greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Of the seven major countries in the world (G7), the United Kingdom was the first to legislate zero net emissions by 2050. Research funds in the environment and energy fields contributed by the UK government are mainly contributed by BEIS, NERC, EPSRC, Innovate UK, etc. The main themes of scientific research at NERC are "Climate System", "Biodiversity", "Sustainable Use of Natural Resources", "Global System Science", "Natural Disasters", "Environment / Pollution / Health" and " (Environment-related) Technology ”. EPSRC cites "energy" and "coexistence with environmental change" as priority research themes. Innovate UK promotes the Innovation Platform, a program for industry, academia and government to jointly tackle specific issues in order to build a lead market for innovative products for major social issues. One of the themes of the platform is "Environmentally Friendly Architecture" for 5 years (2014)
The development of industrially feasible and environmentally friendly low-carbon buildings was promoted in FY2018.
In 2019, the Minister of BEIS announced new measures to support technological innovation by domestic companies and researchers. We will develop new fusion facilities and training systems through investment in innovation in fusion technology, and promote the development of the supply chain necessary for the production of electric vehicles by making additional investment in next-generation cutting-edge automobile technology. .. Through this new measure, the aim is to promote the entire sector toward the completion of the national division of climate change countermeasures.

Life science / clinical medicine field
The UK's international competitiveness in life sciences is high, and government measures are taken. 
The ratio of research funds to be paid is large. It brings over £ 60 billion and over 220,000 jobs to the UK economy each year and boasts world-class levels of national health service (NHS) and products that UK patients depend on on a daily basis. In addition, the UK's R & D investment in the life sciences sector of industry is the largest in Europe. Therefore, in order to make the life science field a strength of the UK, the government established the Office for Life Sciences in 2009 within the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) (at that time), and strengthened the field. Has been focused on. The NHS plays an important role in conducting clinical trials for clinical medical research in the United Kingdom.
As a bioscience promotion policy, the Ministry of Trade and Industry (at that time), the Ministry of Health (at that time) and the Bio-Industry Association jointly announced "Bioscience 2015" 139 in 2003. The document presented the overall government strategy for bioscience, along with six core goals and accompanying recommendations. Cooksea Review 140 was published in 2006 as an independent review of health research. This is a recommendation for funding medical research. The Medical Research Strategy Collaboration Bureau (OSCHR) was established in 2008 as an office to strategically collaborate on the proposed medical research. OSCHR is an organization that develops strategies for efficient and effective medical research and funding at the MRC and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). In 2009, the Life Sciences Bureau took the lead in coordinating with industry on measures to improve the UK business environment surrounding life sciences companies, "Life Sciences Blueprint" 141. The document expressed the government's stance and plans to support the UK life sciences industry, including strengthening research. The following year, 2010, "Life Science 2010: Toward the Realization of the Blueprint" 142 was announced, showing more concrete plans such as the progress of activities and achievements related to the implementation of the "Life Science Blueprint". Was done.
In December 2011, the UK Life Sciences Strategy 143 was launched by BIS (then) and the Ministry of Health (then) as a 10-year strategy to grow and succeed the UK life sciences industry in order to attract investment in the life sciences sector. ) Was jointly announced. The strategy revealed that it will make a public investment of £ 310 million to support the invention, development and commercialization of research. Of this, £ 130 million will be spent on stratified medicine research, and the remaining £ 180 million will be spent on bridging support programs aimed at overcoming the so-called "valley of death" in research and development. In December 2012, the Ministry of Finance published a document entitled “UK Life Sciences Strategy: One Year Later” 144, reporting on the progress of the strategy for one year.
In March 2012, the BBSRC, EPSRC, ESRC and the Technology Strategy Council (TSB) (at that time) jointly formulated and announced the "British Regenerative Medicine Strategy" 145, led by the MRC. It is a strategic plan aimed at shifting the results of biological research to clinical settings that benefit both patients and the UK economy, promising to invest £ 75 million in translational research. ing.
Published by BIS (then) in July 2013, the UK Agricultural Technology Strategy 146 sought to identify the strengths of the country's agricultural technology sector and find opportunities in collaboration with the UK government and industry. This is the first attempt. The industrial strategy announced in November 2017 stipulates that a sector agreement (a government-industry alliance aimed at improving sector productivity) will be started and developed, making Life one of the first sector agreements. Science was included. The major UK funding agencies involved in life sciences are BBSRC, MRC, EPSRC, Innovate UK, Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC), NIHR, and other charities such as Wellcome Trust and UK Cancer Research. Research funds are being spent. At BBSRC, "Bioscience for Sustainable Agriculture and Food", "Bioscience for Renewable Resources and Clean Growth", "Health"
"Bioscience for the integrated understanding of Yasushi" is an issue that should be strategically tackled. MRC cites seven priority research themes: "prevention / early detection," "precision medicine," "multimobility," "advanced therapy," "mental health," "antimicrobial resistance," and "global health." ing. EPSRC cites "healthcare technology" and "coexistence with environmental change" as priority research themes. Innovate UK's innovation platform has three themes: “Long-term care”, “Sustainable agriculture and food” and “Strategic medicine”. It consists of three strategies: the strategy and the government cloud strategy. As a major independent review related to ICT, “Obstacles to Investing in Next Generation Access” 149 was published in September 2008. This will expand next-generation broadband in the UK
This is a review investigating the obstacles that prevent it. In November 2010, the Science and Technology Council (CST) submitted a letter entitled "Digital Infrastructure" 150 to the government, and recommended that broadband infrastructure development, which has been in good shape, should be prioritized in the future. went. Furthermore, in August 2013, a letter to the Minister of DCMS and the then Minister of University and Science of BIS urged that the digital infrastructure be continued to be developed and that the speed of broadband and the current state of reception areas in the UK be improved. ing. The National Cyber ​​Security Strategy (2016-2021) was newly announced in November 2016, revealing that funding support from the initial strategy, which has been implemented since 2011, will almost double to £ 1.9 billion. Therefore, measures are being taken that specialize in the three main areas of defense (Defend), prevention (Deter), and development (Develop).
The new industrial strategy mentioned earlier also set out to strengthen digital infrastructure with over £ 1 billion in public investment. This includes £ 176m for 5G and £ 200m for promoting the rollout of full-scale fiber optic networks in each region. The main public funding agencies in the field of ICT are EPSRC and Innovate UK. EPSRC is a priority research
"Digital economy" and "ICT" are mentioned in the themes. In the digital catapult center, which is one of the catapult centers mentioned above, is it its nature?
The environment is such that relatively small companies such as SMEs and start-up companies can easily participate. Even if the excellent research results are not related to the catapult project, we are trying to display them in the center free of charge for a limited period of 3 months.
Nanotechnology / Materials field
In 2002, the Ministry of Trade and Industry (then) announced the "New Direction of Manufacturing: Strategy for UK Nanotechnology," which is the basis of the UK's nanotechnology strategy. In 2010, BIS (then) announced the "British Nanotechnology Strategy" 151. The strategy clarifies the actions the government should take to ensure the social and economic benefits that the British people can safely obtain from nanotechnology. In 2009, BIS (then) announced the "British Composite Strategy" 152, a strategy for promoting composite development. The strategy aims to develop more durable, lightweight and high-performance composites to build a low-carbon society, which the UK is aiming for, as well as to make the industry more competitive in the field. There is. The strategy involves a £ 16 million government investment to establish the National Composite Materials Center (NCC) 153.
It was also promised to be done. This NCC is now a research institute that constitutes one of the catapult centers, the high-value manufacturing catapult. The center has a long-term goal of contributing to the promotion of the manufacturing sector and the increase in UK GDP.
Research funds in the field of nanotechnology and materials invested by the government are mainly contributed by EPSRC and Innovate UK. EPSRC lists "engineering" as a priority research theme, and its related research fields include "material engineering: ceramics, composite materials, metals and alloys". The UK National Quantum Technologies Program, which started in 2014, invested £ 270 million in five years to advance research and development in the field of quantum technology centered on four research hubs. Five years from 2019, the second phase has begun with an increase to £ 320m. __ 

 

Germany
Science and technology related organizations and science and technology policy planning system
The main ministry of science and innovation in Germany is the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). BMBF
Manages about 60% of the federal R & D budget and develops various R & D strategies.
The BMBF also has a department within its organization that coordinates, investigates, and formulates R & D strategies.
Rather than making decisions on their own, we are creating various strategies with the advice and cooperation of external organizations.
The most important of these agencies are members from the relevant ministries of the federal and state governments.
Consists of the Joint Science Conference (GWK) 155, which holds science and technology-related discussions, universities, companies, and experts.
High-Tech Forum 156, a BMBF advisory body involved in the formulation and evaluation of high-tech strategies,
Comprised of internationally renowned researchers, evaluations, opinions and reports on research, innovation and technology
Luck by the Research Innovation Council (EFI) 157, federal and state governments submitting books to the federal government
There is a Scientific Council (WR) 158 that runs and provides scientific advice to both governments. Is Germany a historical background?
The state government is a federal state with many powers, and culture, education and research are the rights of the state.
But in recent years, strengthening universities and their research capabilities has been one of Germany's top priorities, and the federal government has been a big deal.
The federal and state jointly implement measures such as promoting academic competition and increasing spending on education and research.
To. For science and innovation policies in each area, see Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy (BMWi) 159, Federal Food and Energy.
The Ministry of Agriculture (BMEL) 160 and the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Social Capital (BMVI) 161 are involved. inside that
In particular, BMWi manages about 20% of the federal government's R & D budget, second only to BMBF in science and innovation.
It is an important ministry in the policy. Chart V-1 on the next page shows these contents.
As a research funding institution, BMBF is the competent ministry, mainly targeting basic research at universities.
The German Research Foundation (DFG), which provides research funding, functions in unison with the federal government and is the main
There are project agencies that act on behalf of research grants that contribute to top-down policy goals.
To. The project agency is operated by the government for various research institutes, private companies, non-profit organizations, etc.
Is outsourced. __ In addition to universities, Max Planck Science Promotion Association (hereinafter referred to as Max Planck) is another research and development institution.
Planck Association), Fraunhofer Applied Research Promotion Association (Fraunhofer Society), Helmhol
German Research Center (Helmholtz Association), Leibniz Scientific Union (Leibniz Union)
There are publicly funded research associations, federal and state government research institutes, academic academies, etc.
Research and development by private companies is also active.
Funding system
The German funding system is shared between the federal government and 16 state governments.
It's a little complicated.
In 2016, the government (federated / state) accounted for 28.5% and industry accounted for 65.2% of the total R & D funding in Germany.
And R & D funds from overseas are 5.9% 162. This is mostly EU funding
To. The share of government R & D expenditure is about 55.8% for the federal government and about 44.2% for the state government in the 2016 budget.
It has become. The main R & D agencies in the federal government are BMBF and BMWi, and 88.2% of the 2018 R & D budget is allocated to both ministries plus the Federal Ministry of Defense (BMVg). 17.25 billion euros
About 60.8% is allocated to BMBF and approximately 21.4% is allocated to BMWi. The BMBF and state governments support research associations such as the Max Planck Science Promotion Association and institutional grants such as national research institutes. The state government bears most of the operating costs of the university, and the federal government mainly subsidizes research associations and national research institutes. The flow is increasing.
Next, we describe competitive research funding. Top-down identification of federal R & D funding
A type of funding called project funding that conducts research on issues related to
Publicly solicits organizations (called project agencies) to outsource management and operation operations.
Ministries, together with the institution, gather opinions from research institutes, universities and companies, and organize strategies and programs.
To. Federal grants can be made directly by the government or through a project agency.
May be subsidized. Project agencies include, for example, the Helmholtz Association Institute.
There is one such as the Jülich Research Center and VDI / VDE (originally an association of electrical engineers), which specializes in
Strategies and programs are planned and implemented based on the knowledge of science and technology. Project Funde
The size of the entire ing is 2017 (government budget) of 8.3 billion euros.
On the other hand, the German Research Foundation (DFG) provides competitively funded support for basic research.
It is being carried out. DFG supports basic research from the bottom up and various science-related awards,
Performs work such as implementing a researcher invitation program. Also, the management of the excellence strategy described later
Is entrusted by the federal government. DFG's 2018 budget is approximately € 3.25 billion163.
Looking at the funding ratio of public research institutes, the Max Planck Society was out of € 1.95 billion in 2018.
89% received as an institutional grant, the Fraunhofer Society accounts for 34% of the total budget of € 2.37 billion
Was an institutional subsidy. It can be seen that there is a large difference in the rate of acquisition of funds among research associations164.
Missions listed in high-tech strategy
① Mission in solving social issues
Strengthen cancer research to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment and extend the life expectancy of cancer patients. prevention,
Improve early detection, diagnosis and treatment.
Promote the digitization of patient charts and the associated strengthening of data protection. Doi by 2025
Introduce an electronic medical record system to university hospitals in Japan.
Promote plant-derived plastic production by 2025 to reduce plastic waste
Or develop substances that can be efficiently recycled, and have similar challenges.
Promote research and development by collaborating with other regions.
Aim for CO2 emissions of about 85-90% in 1990 to realize the environmental protection plan 2050
It points to the improvement of production processes and the realization of a sound-cycle economy.
Creating innovative business models through efficient resource use and digitalization
Increase productivity with. Conduct environmental assessments using innovative tools and new indicators to protect diverse species. This area is the beginning of major innovations such as autonomous driving, electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles.
It has been placed. Comprehensive including charging facility development, deregulation, EU policy, etc.
Implement practical measures. Support technology development and supply chain construction for battery production in Germany. Bridging the gap between cities and regions due to changes in economic structure and demographics with the power of digital to create an environment
Improve quality of life in a thoughtful manner. Amid concerns about labor shortages due to the aging of the population, the labor load will be reduced by utilizing assistant systems and robots. Robo in society, including safety and health
Implement comprehensive measures such as acceptance of
② Mission in future technology
With Germany and Europe as bases for AI research and development and practical application, while securing human resources
Build an AI-based business model by involving various application areas.
③ Mission in creating an open innovation environment and entrepreneurial culture
Open access, open science, open data, open inno
Contribute to the creation of the latest science through the principle of vation.
Comparing the six priorities that Germany will focus on with the "new high-tech strategy,"
Become. From the item, it is necessary to deal with digitalization, which was positioned as the highest priority in the new high-tech strategy.
It came off. Digitization is not a single issue, but a common issue for all issues. other
Has a new issue of correcting domestic regional disparities by promoting innovation creation.
To.
Economics and technology listed in the "High-Tech Strategy (2006)", which was a technology-seeded priority strategy
The most important priority technologies are "High-Tech Strategy 2020 (2010)" and "New High-Tech Battle".
Abbreviation (2014) ”is not specified, and it is limited to the expression of mobilizing the technology necessary to solve social issues.
Was there. However, what should be noted in this high-tech strategy 2025 is that Germany will be the next generation of technological innovation.
To be central, we have set priority R & D areas, fostered highly-skilled human resources such as researchers and engineers, and at the same time.
It is noteworthy that we have re-presented tools that deepen the understanding of civil society and encourage participation. __
11 Universities Adopted by Excellence University
(1) RWTH Aachen University
(2) Union of Universities of Berlin (Technical University of Berlin, Freedom University of Berlin, Humboldt University, Charite Medical University)
(3) University of Bonn
(4) Dresden University of Technology
(5) University of Hamburg
(6) Heidelberg University
(7) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
(8) University of Konstanz
(9) University of Munich
(10) Technische Universität München
(11) University of Tubingen
Research base / infrastructure development
In 2011, the BMBF published the Research Infrastructure Policy “Roadmap 176”. Various infrastructure processes
Ekto's scientific direction, strategic science and technology policy priorities, and the possibility of solving social issues,
The purpose is to evaluate the economic efficiency for practical use. Furthermore, at these research centers, young people
It is also expected to train researchers and transfer technology. At the core of this policy is the Scientific Council
A scientific review by (Wissenschaftsrat), and a further funding agency, Project Aeger.
Nancy submits an assessment of social needs and profitability with an outside expert. Both science and economy
Based on the examination from, the ministry will establish a base and give clues to prioritize future science and technology policies.
Is supposed to be. In addition to the existing 27 bases, the following 3 bases were newly added in 2019.
Each additional site will be subsidized in excess of € 50 million to prepare for establishment.
Prospect.
① ACTRIS-D177
Aerosol, cloud and trace gas research centers (ACTRIS-D) significantly improve climate models and their predictive power
Build a national research network for climate and atmospheric research with the aim of improving it.
ACTRIS-D is part of ACTRIS178 on the European ESFRI Roadmap 2016, 20 countries across Europe
Over 120 institutions are working together. Germany is based in Leipzig's Leibniz Union Troposphere Institute
(Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research / TROPOS), EU-funded preparatory fair
Is being promoted as a project (PPP 2017-2019). In the same project, TROPOS
Standard development of ACTRIS infrastructure (observatory, measurement station, simulation chamber)
Leading the establishment of the European Aerosol Calibration Center, Research Infrastructure Structure
Actively participate in all standard development related to the design of the user. In addition to TROPOS, 12 major companies in Germany
Academia and research institutes are participating in the project.
② ER-C 2.0 (Ernst-Ruska Center 2.0)
Conduct high-resolution electron microscopy research to elucidate the structure and properties of materials such as metals and cell tissues. new
New active ingredients and new materials and approaches for the healing process 
Is expected to be possible
For research, the center will be jointly run by the Helmholtz Association's Jülich Research Center and RWTH Aachen University.
It is located at Ernst Ruska Center 179.
③ LPI (Leibniz Photonics Center) 180
Aiming to quickly transfer research results to clinical practice by combining photonics and infectious disease research
It was set up in Jena as a research base. Photonic techniques that contribute to rapid diagnostic methods and new treatment methods
Art, the method and process of using light as a tool, realizes non-contact, quick and sensitive measurement, micro
How organisms cause disease, how the human body protects, these processes
It is hoped that a better understanding of how will be affected.
In addition, in 2019, from BMBF, the digitalization strategy of research and development "Digital Future (Digitale Zukunft181)"
"Is issued. The year before, at the German Institute of Education (GWK) in 16 states and the federal government.
It was decided to build a research data infrastructure (NDFI). Federal and state jointly subsidize NDFI
The open call for participants of the consortium has just started in 2019. The purpose of building NFDI is conventional
The research data of was distributed and stored in a timely manner, but it was accumulated on a common platform and "usable data".
It promotes research and development by making it "data". 90 million in the 10 years from 2019 to 2028
Subsidies are planned up to a maximum of euro / year. The plan is a consortium of 30 universities and research institutes.
-Adopt a siam to enable cross-organizational data collection and availability. Publicly recruited review
-The German Research Foundation (DFG) 182 will be in charge, and GWK will decide the adoption based on the evaluation of DFG. __End Cluster Adopted from the competition program are BioRN, EMN, Hamburg Aviation, Software-Cluster
And BioEconomy, BioM, Cool Solicon, E-Mobility SW, Forum Organic Electronics,
MAI Carbon. (1) Design of energy-efficient AI hardware (subsidy period 1 year / amount unknown)
(2) Culture of mini-organs (subsidy period 3 years / maximum subsidy amount 3 million euros) (3) High-performance / low-priced storage battery development (first year / 250,000 euros, full-scale phase 3 years / total 5 million euros) Environment Energy field
Life Sciences / Clinical Medicine Global food security, sustainable agricultural production, food safety, renewable resources
It shows five fields of industrial use and biomass-based energy sources. Biotech
Bringing the innovation power of Nology not only to the pharmaceutical and chemical industries, but also to the fields of agriculture, forestry and energy.
I also want to utilize it. "National Research Strategy Bioeconomy 2030" includes 24 from 2011 to 2018
It is expected to invest more than 100 million euros. In the field of health research, BMBF established the "Health Research Basic Program" 195 in 2010, which set the strategic policy for future medical research. Priority areas include (1) national disease research such as diabetes and heart disease, (2) personalized medical research, (3) prevention and health medicine, (4) nursing and nursing care research, (5) health-related industries, and (6) international joint research.
Life science is positioned as one of the six priority areas in the "High-Tech Strategy 2025"
It has been kicked. As a mission to solve social issues:  Strengthen cancer research to improve the effectiveness of cancer treatment and extend the life expectancy of cancer patients. Improve prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment.
 Promote the digitization of patient charts and the accompanying strengthening of data protection. Germany by 2025
Introduce an electronic medical record system to the university hospital in Japan. Two have been formulated. In the third phase, it has been decided to focus on personalized medicine (precision medicine) in particular. In addition, in November 2011, research horse mackerel
Enda "Longevity with a future" 196 was approved by the Cabinet, and among them, early detection and treatment of diseases, aging company
Independence and actions at the meeting are positioned as priority items.
Systems and Information Science and Technology The Federal Government announces "Digital Agenda 2014-2017" 197. Seeing digitization as a major opportunity to secure economic growth and employment, with the spread of broadband, labor in the digital age, innovation infrastructure, education and research, cybersecurity and international digital networks
I showed my action plan. The four points at the core of the agenda are as follows.
① Infrastructure All households will be connected to the Internet at a download speed of at least 50 megabits per second by 2018 ② Support for digital ventures in manufacturing, support for cloud computing and big data technology Promotion of manufacturing policy industry 4.0198
③ Digitization of personal information
My number promoted as a country, which is different from the data society built by global IT companies
System maintenance, etc.
④ Personal information protection and cyber security
Strengthen data protection and cyber attack countermeasures Human resources development
Digital Agenda 2014-2017 is primarily under the jurisdiction of BMWi, BMVI and BMI (Federal Ministry of Interior)
There is. "Digital Strategy 2025199" which will be a concrete policy of the digital agenda from BMWI in 2015
Was announced, and 10 items of strengthening guidelines including research and development to industrial promotion were presented.
Prior to this, the federal government announced in November 2010 the government's comprehensive ICT strategy "Germany Digital 2015" as Germany's first research institute specializing in Internet studies "Joseph Weizenbaum Institute 201".
Started in 2017. Comprehensive digitization, including legislation and understanding of economic effects, based on cross-disciplinary research
Aiming to be an organization that researches and analyzes in a comprehensive manner, through open recruitment, the Free University of Berlin, the Technical University of Berlin, and Humbol
University of the Arts, Berlin University of the Arts, University of Potsdam and Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems
Underlying expenses from 2019 to 2025 when the consortium consisting of (FOKUS) was adopted
Announced that it will invest 3 billion euros in R & D expenses including the above. Toward the practical application of AI
From basic research to applied research The importance of collaboration and international collaboration is emphasized. For international cooperation, Germany
R & D within the EU, based on collaboration with France, which announced its AI strategy earlier this year
Is described to promote. Nanotechnology / materials field that solves social issues under "High-tech strategy 2025", (1) Construction of nanotech platform, (2) Energy, transportation, medical care, construction, machinery field
Application to, ③ Sustainable and highly efficient resource use, ④ Industry-academia collaboration as the basic concept of each project
The federal government, which is supposed to operate the game, has announced a "quantum strategy" and will invest 650 million euros in the four years from 2018 to 2022. Second generation quantum computing (computer, simulation) as a priority area
Ration, etc.), Quantum communication (communication, security technology, etc.), measurement (precision measurement technology, etc.)
In addition to the development of technology, satellites, navigation technology, etc.), technology transfer in the quantum field and promotion of industrial participation
I'm sick. Autonomous driving, electric and fuel cell vehicles to solve social issues under "High-Tech Strategy 2025"
However, this area is at the beginning of major innovation. Maintenance of charging facilities, deregulation of laws and regulations,
In Germany, as a comprehensive practical measure including EU policy and a mission in the field of future technology
In addition, we will make Europe a base for R & D and practical application of AI, and involve various application areas while securing human resources.
It is shown that by doing so, a business model based on AI will be built.

France, the National Research Organization (ANR) and the Public Investment Bank (Bpifrance) can be mentioned. The former allocates a wide range of funds, from basic research to technology transfer programs. The latter allocates funds mainly to innovation creation activities by SMEs. Also,
The Environment and Energy Conservation Organization (ADEME) also allocates small but competitive funds.
The main promoters of R & D are under the umbrella of both the Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation and related ministries.
It is a public research institute to set up. National Center for Public Health (CNRS), National Institute of Public Health (INSERM),
Nuclear and Alternative Energies Agency (CEA), National Institute of Agriculture, Food and Environment (INRAE) 214, National Informatics
There are laboratories such as the Institute for Research in Computer Science (INRIA). The public research institute is the National Center for Scientific Research.
(CNRS) and other "public research institutes with scientific and technical characteristics" and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Agency (CEA)
Classified as "public research institutes with industrial / commercial characteristics" such as
Funding Systems Higher Education Institutions, public research institutes such as CNRS, CNES (National Center for Space Research) and CEA (Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies and Energy Agency). Most of the public funds for research and development spent on public research institutes and universities are institutional subsidies and competitive resources.
Depends on the distribution of gold. In other words, institutional assistance is closed with the competent ministry every four or five years in principle.
MIRES (Ministry of Research and Higher Education Interdisciplinary Mission) under the jurisdiction of MESRI, which will be described later, based on the contract concluded.
A fixed amount is allocated every year from the calculation. According to FutuRIS estimate 222, 2008 will be allocated to universities
94.2% of the funds and 92.9% of the funds allocated to national research institutes were institutional subsidies, but in 2019 1
According to MESRI presentation material 223, the ratio of these institutional subsidies is 76.58% at universities and the National Museum of Nature and Science.
76.57% of public research institutes with scientific and technical characteristics such as Tar (CNRS), Nuclear and Alternative Energies and Energy Agency
In public research institutes with industrial and commercial characteristics such as (CEA), it is 52.15%, which has been large in the last 10 years.
The proportion of institutional subsidies in the funding of academic and public research institutes is declining. Since 2010 "Investment total for the future"
It can be said that this is a result of the increase in the proportion of competitive funds such as “picture” measures, and the proportion of competitive funds will be further increased in the future.
218 University Districts: The 30 university districts throughout France have been reorganized into 17 by the 2016 revision of the system.
219 NOTRe Act (August 2015 Act): A law that changes the division of mainland France from the previous 22 regions to 13 regions and promotes the transfer of authority to the regions. New regional names such as Nouvelle-Aquitaine and Occitania have been established. Support for small and medium-sized enterprises, local economy / innovation / internationalization promotion plans, and the formulation of sustainability plans were under the jurisdiction of the local governments. It can be said that the government's policy of going is steadily progressing.
Competitive funding is mainly distributed by the Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR).
It is divided. ANR was the first independent funding agency in France in 2005
Was established in. Since 1999, the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research has allocated the ANR.
Fonds National de la Science (funding for academic research) and Fonds de la Recherche
Two competitive funding for Technologique (funding for industry-academia-government collaboration) (approx. 200 million euros)
Was absorbed by ANR. ANR allocated approximately € 518 million in 2018, with an acceptance rate
Was 16.2%. The ANR Action Plan is attended by MESRI, representatives of the Research Union, etc., and chaired by the representative of MESRI.
It is formulated by the Comité Pilotage Programmation (CPP).
This CPP is held twice a year, the first to formulate an action plan for the following year and the second to formulate an action plan in Europe.
To do. ANR's open recruitment program will start in 2014. 

SNR, a national research policy based on social issues
In line with the policy of France Europe 2020, the EU's Horizon 2020 and the United Nations' Sustainable Development Eyes
It is linked with the mark. ANR's 2020 plan includes the UN's Agenda 2030 and the EU's next plan
Looking ahead to the formulation of Horizon Europe, a French official with five research alliances (alliance)
In order to mobilize research institutes for the entire private sector, we are focusing on the following items in cross-sectional research.
 Health / environment / society
 Health / Digital
 Digital humanity
 Social / digital security
 Digital, energy, environment, society
The 2020 plan also includes the following national priorities:
 Artificial intelligence
 Humanities and Social Sciences
 Quantum technology
 Drug resistance
 Autism in neurodevelopmental disorders
 Parallel studies in rare diseases
ANR open recruitment consists of (1) "Research and Innovation," which mainly consists of open recruitment, and (2) Urgent issues and challenges.
"Specific open call for participants", ③ "Building a European research area and improving the international appeal of France", ④
"By research," which consists of LabCom, which supports the research activities of small and medium-sized enterprises, and programs for Carnot institutions.
"Economic impact and competitiveness" are the main pillars.
For open recruitment, cooperation programs, support programs for young researchers, international cooperation programs, and corporate cooperation
There are types such as power programs. For specific open recruitment, there are industrial course programs with companies and Carnot institutions.
Support programs for, programs to participate in mixed research units on a research team basis, ERC, Europe
There are international network formation programs, etc. 224. Public offering occupies about 85.5% of ANR's allocation funds
The breakdown by field in 2018 is 26% for life sciences, 22% for cross-sectional studies, 15% for energy and materials, and 11% for digital sciences.
"Research and Innovation" is in the following seven research fields in line with SNR France Europe 2020.
It covers 36 axes and 13 cross-sectoral axes.
 Environment
 Energy and materials science
 Life science
 Humanities and Social Sciences
 Digital science
 Mathematics and interaction
 Physics, high energy, planets and space
The 13 cross-sectoral axes are as follows.
 Interaction between humankind and the environment
 Pollutants, ecosystem and health
 Infectious diseases and environment
 Public health, health and society
 Mathematics and Digital Science for Biology and Health
 Digital Revolution: The Relationship between Knowledge and Culture
 Technology for health
 Global security / cyber security
 Bioeconomy: Processes and approaches in chemistry, biotechnology and biomass utilization
 Urban society, rural areas, construction and mobility
 Nanomaterials and nanotechnology for future products
 Sensors and analytical instruments
 Future industries and factories: people, organizations, technologies
ANR has a national policy of starting from mid-2018, originating from publicly funded project research.
Mandatory open access for table papers and data.
Public investment banks are the funding agencies that mainly work on innovation support for SMEs.
There is (Bpifrance). So far, OSÉO, which was established in 2005, has played that role, but in 2013
It was integrated into Bpifrance in the year. Bpifrance is under the supervision of the Ministry of Economy and Finance and MESRI
There is.
The budget for research and development is set within the budget frame of MIRES (Ministry of Research and Higher Education Interdisciplinary Mission 225).
It is distributed. The point that the budget is prepared for each mission, not for each ministry
There is a feature in. Figure VI-4 shows a list of programs included in MIRES. This MIRES is 2006
It is a budget frame based on the mechanism accompanying the Budget Organization Law (LOLF) that came into full force from the year, and this framework
Higher education and research-related budgets that transcend ministries and agencies are collectively requested and deliberated by the parliament. Minister of MESRI
Responsible for parliamentary deliberation. The government as a whole has 32 missions, of which MESRI is in charge.
MIRES, the mission to be carried out, consists of nine programs, four of which (program numbers).
150, 231, 172, 193) are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Higher Education and Innovation (MESRI). The remaining 5
(190, 192, 191, 186, 142) are under the jurisdiction of other ministries. Parliament proposes budget submitted in MIRES framework
You can change the distribution of amounts between programs within, but you can change the total amount of MIRES.
Absent. The MIRES requirement for 2020 is approximately 28.6 billion euros, which is on a slight increase. Under the jurisdiction of MESRI
The budget accounts for nearly 90% of the total MIRES.
As for public research investment other than the above MIRES budget, see the above-mentioned "Investment plan for the future".
Funding of science and research expense tax credit (CIR), which will be described later, can be mentioned, but in addition to that, regional development in France
There is a budget for science and technology in the budget (CPER: Le Contrat de plan Etat-Région). This regional movement
The budget was started under the Mitterrand administration as part of the decentralization policy under the July 1982 Act.
It is formulated between the national and local governments in a cycle of 6 to 7 years. The regional promotion budget itself is widely used for local employment,
For higher education / research and innovation, environmental measures, transportation / infrastructure development, etc.
The total budget for the 2015-2020 period is approximately 31 billion euros (History and Outlook Report 226 of the Regional Development Budget), and the Higher Education
Approximately 3.2 billion euros have been budgeted for education, research and innovation. Regulations on the amount of investment in research
The model is said to cost about 1 billion euros (per 6-7 years) nationwide, for local universities and public research institutes.
Is an important source of funding. Regarding the fields of higher education and research in this regional promotion budget, the above-mentioned areas
Being under the jurisdiction of the Mayor of the local university __
The Macron administration is also in the new large-scale investment plan (GPI), which will succeed the "investment plan for the future" policy (PIA).
The following four items have been announced as priorities.
 Accelerating the transition to an environment-friendly society (funding allocation of 20 billion euros)
 Acceleration of renovation paying attention to the thermal efficiency of buildings
 Sustainable transportation system
 Renewable energy and environmental innovation
 Building a skills society (funding allocation of 15 billion euros)
 Establishing competitiveness through innovation (funding allocation of 13 billion euros)
 Higher education and innovation
 Agriculture
 Construction of a digital nation (funding allocation of 9 billion euros)
 Digitization of systems in the field of health care
 Investment for efficient conversion to public institutions in the future 1) Resource management and response to climate change
Build knowledge about climate change and build raw material supply chains (exploration, extraction)
Promote research and innovation across digging, processing, reuse, and recycling. Also new
Important themes such as material development, environmentally friendly processing, and development of an integrated management system.
Work on Ma.
2) Clean, safe and efficient energy
Work on the transition of energy sources. For renewable resources such as marine resources, wind power, and biomass
Improve relevant assessments and forecasts. Development of new technology to increase production efficiency of solar cells, etc.
Work on.
3) Industrial reconstruction
Electronic computerization of factories, flexible manufacturing process centered on people, design of new materials, sensors and equipment
Which challenge to tackle.
4) Health and social welfare
Multi-scale analysis of biodiversity and evolution, processing and collection of biological data, research
Work on issues such as the national network of core research centers for research and treatment.
5) Food security and population change
Healthy and sustainable nutrition, production system integration approach, biomass production?
We will tackle issues such as diversification of usage.
6) Sustainable transportation and urban system
Development of urban observation facilities, devising new means of transportation, means and technologies useful for sustainable cities, capital
Work on issues such as the integration and restoration of the city's infrastructure and networks.
7) Information and communication society
5th generation network infrastructure structure, Internet of Things, utilization of large amounts of data, man-ma
Work on issues such as Shin collaboration.
8) Innovative, inclusive and adaptable society
New indicators of innovation capacity, data availability and knowledge extraction, social, educational and
Address issues such as cultural innovation.
9) Space and aviation for Europe
A series of services in earth observation, competitiveness in the field of data communication and navigation, important parts
Work on issues such as goods, space observation and exploration technology, national defense and homeland security.
10) Freedom and security of European civil society
Risk and threat prevention / prediction, integrated crisis management approach, security system
Work on issues such as resilience.
④ __________ France's next research strategy
The current research strategy SNR France Europe 2020 is based on France Europe 2020 and is now
The French research strategy that will be prepared later is in line with the EU's next program, Horizon Europe.
Deaf is expected. University of Lorraine, University of Franche-Comté Bourgogne,
University of Lille, University of Montpellier, University of Clermont-Ferrand, University of Nantes, Gare de l'Est University, Sergey
Pontoise University, Po University. Competitive bases support research and development for industrial development such as ICT, medical care, biotechnology, energy, and environment.
Implementing hydrogen, solar, smart
Energy companies such as grids and hydropower, and their main member, France Electric Power (EDF),
Approximately 500 members of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Agency (CEA), Corsica Development Corporation and public research institutes
With the strong support of the local governments where both competitive bases are set up, employment and
It shares socio-economic policies with local governments. Institute of Technology (IRT: Instituts de Recherche Technologique)
The Institute of Technology (IRT) is an organization operated by public-private partnership for the purpose of technology transfer, and eight have been certified.
ing. Competing to strengthen the innovation ecosystem formed around competitive bases
It will be installed after being certified by a competitive base. Installation begins within the framework of the "Investment Plan for the Future" program
As a result, € 2 billion has been allocated from the state through the ANR. Carno label research as a function
Similar to an institution, but larger, with a wider range of services, and public and private
It differs in that it is operated by a collaborative organization.
One example is the Saint-Exupery Institute in the Toulouse area. Competitive base Ae mentioned above
We are conducting research activities that create competitive added value in collaboration with the Los Space Valley. Competitiveness
The base is mainly to secure business partners and funds for core projects at IRT.
The Santech Jupelli Institute is responsible for the execution of research projects, and the target technology level is TRL4-6.
There are 15 members responsible for the governance of the institute, and about 50% of the members are on the corporate side and 50% are on the higher education / public research institute side.
Approximately 300 people carry out research activities, 50% are seconded from the company side, 25% are doctoral students and postdocs.
20% are IRT researchers and 5% are seconded from public research institutes, but doctoral students are high in the district.
We preferentially hire applicants from other educational institutions. Doctoral students who started their research in early 2014
Nine of the 15 are employed by partner companies. Employment of doctoral students is a scrutiny of the project content
Later, the application guidelines will be posted on the website, and students requesting a doctoral course at a higher education institution will apply.
The allocation of research hours for doctoral students is flexibly decided between the university and the IRT.
Energy technology 
 

ITE (Institut pour la Transition Energétique), an energy technology research institute specializing in
Eight places are registered and financial support is provided in the framework of "investment plan for the future" as well.
Has been done.
6.3.2 Strategies / policies and measures in individual fields
Below, Environment / Energy, Life Science / Clinical Medicine, Systems / Information Science and Technology, Nano
We will take up the four fields of technology and materials and outline related important policies, strategies and measures.
To. In France, national aviation research is a public research institute that promotes research in the field of aerospace.
ONERA is a national institution that formulates plans for the aerospace field and promotes public-private partnerships.
There is the Space Research Center (CNES), which works closely with the European Space Agency (ESA).
To. Next-generation rocket Ariane 6 for launching artificial satellites in 2020 in the increasingly competitive space development of recent years
Regarding resource management in the environment and energy fields, which is being promoted with the aim of launching for the first time in the year, the direction of linking it to future utilization as an energy source is indicated by searching for marine biological resources. In June 2014, the "Report on the Environmental Impact of Utilization of Deep Sea Resources" 244 was published by the French National Institute for Marine Development (IFREMER) and the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS).
(2) "Low Carbon Strategy" 245 and "Multi-Year Plan for Energy 2019-2023, 2023-2028" 246
From the end of 2018 to the beginning of 2019, under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Environmental Solidarity Transition, two important energy issues
Policy documents have been published. The new "Low Carbon Strategy" announced in December 2018 is the 2050 Carbon Ni
It is a roadmap with an eye on the Utral, and as of the end of November 2019, it should share the same goals with European countries.
We are in discussions. Also announced in January 2019, `` Multi-Year Energy Plan 2019-2023,
"2023-2028" sets out France's energy strategy for the next decade and the previously announced "Low"
In line with the direction of the "Carbon Strategy", energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, renewable gas production,
Numerical targets are set for indicators such as nuclear power generation, economic growth, and employment. Specifically, the Paris Agreement
In addition to demanding reductions in energy consumption in all sectors, renewable gas utilization, hydrogen, wind power, etc.
Diversification of energy sources such as solar power, biomass, and geothermal power generation, stable supply in consideration of environmental requirements,
Direction of electricity storage, research and innovation, maintenance of energy price competitiveness, participation of local governments, etc.
Is shown. Regarding nuclear power generation, President Hollande stated in September 2012 that "Nuclear power will be produced by 2025.
The goal was to reduce the ratio of child power generation to total power generation from the current 75% to 50%. "
In this "Multi-year plan on energy", the deadline for achieving this goal is set to "by 2035".
It is correct.
③ Conseil Defense ecologique on the transition to environmental solidarity
The Committee, which has been held since May 23, 2019, will meet with the Prime Minister under the initiative of the President.
It is composed of the relevant ministers, and its role is not only the Ministry of Environmental Solidarity Transition, but also the entire policy of the government, which is the government's spirit.
Adhere to ambitious goals for weather and biodiversity. Meetings are held regularly
Our mission is to determine the direction of environmental policy, follow up on the implementation of the established direction, and must
Take necessary additional measures. The 2019 Council is a treasure trove of biodiversity against climate change
Proposal for the Conservation of a Forest and a Six-Month Survey for It to Parliamentarian Anne-Roll Caturo
I decided to order.
④ Efforts by thematic research alliance
The main research associations involved in this field are ANCRE247 (energy) and AllEnvi248 (environment).
To.
ANCRE is a research alliance consisting of about 20 institutions such as CEA and CNRS. As mentioned above, France is currently considering a scenario for changing energy sources towards 2050. Making that scenario
Research towards is one of the main efforts.
AllEnvi has 12 founding bodies such as the Geological Mining Research Bureau (BRGM) and CEA, and 15 associate pars.
It is an organization consisting of toner. Some long-lasting working groups such as the ocean, atmosphere, and earth
(For example, the Earth Group collects various data such as temperature, seawater temperature, CO2 concentration, earthquakes, etc.)
In addition, groups dealing with urgent environmental themes (for example, themes such as pesticides are about 2-3 years
A short-term working group has been set up to respond to government consultations)
Life Sciences / Clinical Medicine Strategies for life sciences are linked to social issues such as health and social welfare, food security and population change. In the former, priorities include analysis of biodiversity and change on multiple scales, creation and collection of biological data, and networking of excellent research and therapeutic centers. In the latter, healthy and sustainable food (study of internal bacteria, improving energy efficiency of food production / processing / saving processes, etc.), integrated approach to production processes (multi-stakeholder collaboration, agroecology, predictive biomass, etc.) Areas such as (food, material, energy) production based on the diverse use of biomass (such as science) are listed as priorities. Specific medical care projects include the cancer plan (plan cancer 2014-2019), but in recent years, the 2018 Third National Maladiesrares (PNMR) 2018-2022 (Le troisième plan national maladiesrares (PNMR) 2018-2022) ) Has started.
② Name and theme of the research association
The research alliance mainly related to this field is AVIESAN 249 (life science, medical care).
AVIESAN is about 20 institutions such as INSERM, CEA, CNRS, Regional Hospital / University Center (CHRU), etc.
It is an organization consisting of. Life science / technology, public health, medical care that meets the expectations of society, biomedicine
We are working on themes such as improving the economic efficiency of the field. Not only focusing on basic research, but also planning
It also has collaborative members in the industry and attaches great importance to the utilization of research results.
③ National research support through ANR, etc.
The French government has been focusing on bio-life support in recent years, 85.5% of the funds allocated through ANR.
The share of life science funding in the open call for participants is 26%, and other cross-sectional studies are 22%.
Greater than energy and materials 15%, digital science 11% and more.
France has made life-related research one of its priority research items and is part of ANR's 2020 plan.
Of the five cross-sectional studies, the following two items are life-related.
 Health / environment / society
 Health / Digital
Of the 6 priority research items, the following 3 items are related to life.
 Drug resistance
 Autism in neurodevelopmental disorders
 Parallel studies in rare diseases
In the framework of the “Investment Plan for the Future” mentioned above, 171 bio-las were conducted twice in 2010 and 2011.
Funds have been allocated to IF-related projects, and specific allocation destinations include human resource development in 6.3.1.1.
"Excellent Laboratory (LABEX)" program mentioned in the section on liquidity, section on research bases and infrastructure development in 6.3.1.2.
"Advanced Research Equipment (EquipEX)" program mentioned in the above and "Research Infrastructure Roadmap" of the country posted
Specializes in applied microbiology at one of the "Technical Research Institutes (IRT)" introduced in Section 6.3.1.3.
Bioaster Institute 250, Other University Hospital Institute 251, Cohort, Clinical Trials in Biotechnology,
Examples include bioinformatics and nanotechnology-related research.
Chart VI-5 shows the bio-life related research infrastructure listed in the “Research Infrastructure Roadmap”.
In "France Life Imaging (FLI)", "Animal model creation, breeding, phenotypic classification, allocation and
And the National Infrastructure for Preservation and Recording (CELPHEDIA) ”, but a total of 24 biotechnology including these two cases
Life-related infrastructure is registered. Department as a support for these life-related research bases
Academic Interest Group 252 "Infrastrutures en Biologie (IBISA)
Sante et Agronomie) ”, which is responsible for revitalizing and organizing the country's bio-life related infrastructure.
National recognition of public-private combined life science-related research platforms and infrastructure institutions
We are coordinating fixed and support policies. To give a concrete example of certification, Neuro in the Grenoble district
UMS IRMaGe 253, a hybrid research support unit for science, is INSERM254
And Grenoble Alp University, Grenoble Alp University Hospital, CNRS255 and mixed research support uni
It is IBISA accredited. In addition, this UMS is the above-mentioned "French life image"
It is also a member of "Ning". 2 MRIs, 1 electroencephalogram (EEG), 1 transcranial magnetic stimulator (TMS)
It has a machine, one near-infrared spectrometer, etc., and has 14 personnel. From researchers at jointly operated institutions
We have prepared a cost system according to the request destination, not only for the projects in the above, but also for requests from local researchers and industry.
It corresponds.
In addition, the Innovation Council co-sponsored by the Ministry of Economy and Finance and MESRI as mentioned in 6.1.1. Will formulate the policy.
Up to 30 million euros each from the "Fund for Industry and Innovation"
Is done through ANR etc., but two of the five challenges are related to life:
It has become something like that.
 How to improve medical diagnosis by artificial intelligence
 How to produce high value-added proteins at low biological cost
Systems / Information Science and Technology Field
Positioning in SNR France Europe 2020
Strategies related to the field of information science and technology include the information and communication society and an innovative, comprehensive and adaptable society.
It is established in relation to the social issue of.
In the former, infrastructure development for 5th generation networks, networked things
Areas such as (IoT), utilization of large-scale data, and cooperation between humans and machines are mentioned.
The latter involves improving the availability of data and refining methods of gaining knowledge from the data.
Areas are listed.
② Name and theme of the research association
The research alliance mainly related to this field is ALLISTENE 256 (Digital Economy). ALLISTENE is an organization consisting of 6 institutions such as the National Institute for Research in Computer Science (INRIA) and CNRS.
To. 1) Mathematical model, 2) Software, 3) Networks and services, 4) Autonomous system
Robotics, 5) Nanoscience and Nanotechnology for ICT, 6) Crossing between the above themes
Research is being tackled.
(3) Work on digital human resources and artificial intelligence (AI) research. Gist
Is in the field of AI research 1) Research collaboration i) AI peripherals (algorithms, reasoning, etc.), integrated themes
(Robot technology, data science, etc.), ii) Applications (National Defense / Security, Transportation / Transportation, Medical Care,
Environment), 2) Human resource development: A course program for doctoral programs has been set up. Adopted base is Gourno
There are four urban areas, Louvre, Nice, Paris and Toulouse, and many private companies and
Foreign companies are participating. , Computers at each center are introduced in the large-scale research infrastructure roadmap 
Grand Equipement National de Calcul Intensif (GENCI)
I am doing it. 49% of the purchase cost is spent by GENCI, and the rest is by public research institutes and countries.
I'm spending. Regarding operation, GENCI will update the machine and optimize the operation time.
ing. GENCI has its own personnel, but the personnel cost of each calculation center is operated by CNRS
, CEA, universities, etc. are responsible. The motivation for establishing GENCI is the calculation request from the research community.
Focusing on one window, optimizing the calculation load, accumulating know-how, and conducting peer review
There are also merits. Public offerings are held twice a year, a committee is set up, and a calculation request form from researchers is submitted to GENCI.
The scientists on the side have confirmed. The CEA Large Research Center (TGCC), one of the three centers
Is receiving funding from the EU, with GENCI acting as the representative. GENCI is Europe
Partnership for Advanced Computing in
Europe: PRACE) It also plays a role of representing France in 259. The European Commission's resources
European High-Performance Computing where money is allocated to machine purchases
Regarding Joint Undertaking (HPC) 260, the member entity is a member country, so the representative of France is MESRI.
Is going. 259 European Advanced Computing Partnership http://www.prace-ri.eu/
PRACE is an agreement to split resources such as machine purchase and machine time optimization, and consists of a small number of member countries. EU funding is only contributed to the institution's revitalization goals.
6.3.2.4 Nanotechnology / Materials field
Research in the fields of nanotechnology and materials is conducted by the Directorate General of Enterprises (DGE) under the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Research and Administration.
It is jointly under the jurisdiction.
① Positioning in SNR France Europe 2020
Strategies related to the field of nanotechnology and materials are related to the social issue of industrial reconstruction.
It is set up. Here, digitized factories, environmentally and citizen-friendly factories, human-centered
Flexible manufacturing process, new material design, sensors and information gained from them
Items such as system construction are prioritized areas.
② Nano 2022
Nano2022 is a public-private joint five-year support program, Micro-elect.
R & D and practical application of Ronix technology, especially for difficult work such as transition from prototype development to mass production
Support as an elephant. In March 2019, the electronics industry and related research institutes announced the French government
It was announced that it would jointly proceed with the agreement 262. As a public research institute, CEA's Engineering Department (CEA)
Tech) participates in project management, and STMicroelectronics is the leader in the industry.
Nano2022 is a joint professional on microelectronics in France, Italy, Germany and the United Kingdom.
JECT "Important Project of Common European Interest:
It is positioned as part of "IPCEI)".
At the national level, a € 1 billion public grant to Nano2022 (of which the national grant is 886.5 million)
Euro) is planned to support a total of € 1.75 billion in four countries under the IPCEI framework.
Was approved by the European Commission. Target fields are automobiles, 5G, AI, IoT, aerospace and security.
252② Nano 2022 (Nano2022)
Nano2022 is a public-private joint five-year support program, Micro-elect.
R & D and practical application of Ronix technology, especially for difficult work such as transition from prototype development to mass production
Support as an elephant. In March 2019, the electronics industry and related research institutes announced the French government
It was announced that it would jointly proceed with the agreement 262. As a public research institute, CEA's Engineering Department (CEA)
Tech) participates in project management, and STMicroelectronics is the leader in the industry.
Nano2022 is a joint professional on microelectronics in France, Italy, Germany and the United Kingdom.
JECT "Important Project of Common European Interest:
It is positioned as part of "IPCEI)".
At the national level, a € 1 billion public grant to Nano2022 (of which the national grant is 886.5 million)
Euro) is planned to support a total of € 1.75 billion in four countries under the IPCEI framework.
Was approved by the European Commission. Target fields are automobiles, 5G, AI, IoT, aerospace and security.
Computational Center Name Operating Location Remarks Laboratory for Intensive Science Computing Development and Resources IDRIS
CNRS Orsay (University of Paris-Saclay)
CEA Large-scale Computational Center
TGCC
CEA Bruyères le Chatel
National Compute for Higher Education
Ting Center
CINES
CINES Steering Committee / MESRI for research at Montpellier University
Next-generation component manufacturing technology related to these areas, specifically: 1) High energy efficiency
2) Power semiconductors, 3) Smart sensors, 4) Advanced optical equipment, 5) Materials that replace silicon, etc.
There are plans to support these development activities, R & D investment and the pre-industrial phase, 5 years 2018-2022
In the meantime, we expect to attract private investment and create new jobs, which will eventually reach a total of 5 billion euros for the public and private sectors.
doing. Especially connectivity, computing, sensors, energy electronics, cyber
-We strive to secure cutting-edge technology in technologies such as security, and the national AI nation for AI.
In line with the strategy, aim to build a system that is technically independent of other countries in the area of ​​edge computing
ing.
③ RENATCH
RENATCH as a representative technology platform for research and development of nanotechnology and microfabrication in France
(Réseau national des grandes centrales de technologies) 263. 5 bases in Japan
Each set up a clean room as a CNRS laboratory, with a total of 7,300 m2 of clean room.
It has 150 professional technical staff and equipment worth 130 million euros. In Section 6.3.1.2
It is also included in the large-scale research infrastructure roadmap introduced. Distributed network of 5 bases
Type research infrastructure, Lille, Orsay (Paris Saclay) and Marcussi, Besancon,
It is based in Grenoble (attached to MINATEC) and Toulouse.
④ Quantum field
A mission was set up in the House of Representatives, the National Assembly, in 2019, by Congressman Fortessa in 2020.
January 9, 2014 Quantum Strategy Report "Quantum Technology: France Does Not Fail to Turn a Technological Turning Point 264" Government
Was submitted to. In response to this recommendation, the national strategy and its roadma for the quantum field will be reached by the end of 2020.
The program will be formulated and announced.
In this report, we are concerned with the economic growth brought about by this innovative technology and technologies such as cyber security.
We regard the retention of national sovereignty as an important issue. For research, the scale of 10 million euros via ANR
Public offering of projects, establishment of bases in Paris, Paris Saclay and Grenoble, collaboration between ANR and BPI
Support for cross-sectional research through open recruitment, acceleration of development of startups specializing in quantum technology, engineering
Development of vocational education specializing in nearing and quantum computing and quantum engineers in industry
Responding to increasing needs for technology and stealing strategic technology and technical information to stakeholders related to the technology
Sensitivity to risks and countermeasures, pay close attention to strategic technological assets and activities, and if necessary, national science and technology potential
It makes a total of 37 proposals, such as utilizing laws and regulations related to power protection.
⑤ Name and theme of the research association
Research associations related to this field are ALLISTENE265 (digital economy) and AVIESAN266 (rai).
Science, medical care), ANCRE267 (energy) and AllEnvi268 (food, water, climate, land)
To.
⑥ Other
In February 2019, the document "Manufacturing tomorrow's car in France" 269 was announced, and it is automatic.
Along with the development of driving vehicles, electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles, cooperation based on the French-German consortium
It has been announced that the storage battery production industry will be fostered.